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Satisfying Non-Functional Requirements in Model-Driven Development of Real-Time Embedded Systems
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. (Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Systems)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1512-0844
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Design of real-time embedded systems is a complex and challenging task. Part of this complexity originates from their limited resources which incurs handling a big range of Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs). Therefore, satisfaction of NFRs plays an important role in the correctness of the design of these systems. Model-driven development has the potential to reduce the design complexity of real-time embedded systems by increasing the abstraction level, enabling analysis at earlier phases of development and code generation. In this thesis, we identify some of the challenges that exist in model-driven development of real-time embedded systems with respect to NFRs, and provide techniques and solutions that aim to help with the satisfaction of NFRs. Our end goal is to ensure that the set of NFRs defined for a system is not violated at runtime.

First, we identify and highlight the challenges of modeling NFRs in telecommunication systems and discuss the application of a UML-based approach for modeling them. Since NFRs have dependencies, and the design decisions to satisfy them cannot be considered in isolation, we propose a model-based approach for trade-off analysis of NFRs to help with the comparison of different design models with respect to the satisfaction level of their NFRs. Following the issue of evaluating the interdependencies of NFRs, we also propose solutions for establishing and maintaining balance between different NFRs. In this regard, we categorize our suggested solutions into static and dynamic. The former refers to a static design and set of features which ensures and guarantees the balance of NFRs, while the latter means establishing balance at runtime by reconfiguring the system and runtime adaptation. Finally, we discuss the role of the execution platform in preservation and monitoring of timing properties in real-time embedded systems and propose an approach to enrich the platform with necessary mechanisms for monitoring them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2012.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 150
Keyword [en]
non-functional requirements, model-driven development, real-time, embedded systems
National Category
Embedded Systems Software Engineering Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14533ISBN: 978-91-7485-066-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-14533DiVA: diva2:523715
Presentation
2012-05-11, Kappa, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
CHESS
Available from: 2012-04-26 Created: 2012-04-25 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. UML-Based Modeling of Non-Functional Requirements in Telecommunication Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>UML-Based Modeling of Non-Functional Requirements in Telecommunication Systems
2011 (English)In: The Sixth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances (ICSEA 2011), Barcelona, Spain: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. , 2011, 213-220 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Successful design of real-time embedded systems relies heavily on the successful satisfaction of their non-functional requirements. Model-driven engineering is a promising approach for coping with the design complexity of embedded systems. However, when it comes to modeling non-functional requirements and covering specific aspects of different domains and types of embedded systems, general modeling languages for real-time embedded systems may not be able to cover all of these aspects. One solution is to use a combination of modeling languages for modeling different non-functional requirements as is done in the definition of EAST-ADL modeling language for automotive domain. In this paper, we propose a UML-based solution, consisting of different modeling languages, to model non-functional requirements in telecommunication domain, and discuss different challenges and issues in the design of telecommunication systems that are related to these requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Barcelona, Spain: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2011
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13632 (URN)978-1-61208-165-6 (ISBN)
Conference
CSEA 2011, The Sixth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, Location: Barcelona, Spain, from October 23, 2011 to October 29, 2011
Available from: 2011-12-15 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling Security Aspects in Distributed Real-Time Component-Based Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Security Aspects in Distributed Real-Time Component-Based Embedded Systems
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information Technology, ITNG 2012, 2012, 437-444 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Model Driven Engineering (MDE) and Component Based Software Development (CBSD) are promising approaches to deal with the increasing complexity of Distributed Real-Time Critical Embedded Systems. On one hand, the functionality complexity of embedded systems is rapidly growing. On the other hand, extra-functional properties (EFP) must be taken into account and resource consumption must be optimized due to limited resources. However, EFP are not independent and impact each other. This paper introduces concepts and mechanisms that allow to model security specifications and derive automatically the corresponding security implementations by transforming the original component model into a secured one taking into account sensitive data flow in the system. The resulted architecture ensures security requirements by construction and is expressed in the original meta model; therefore, it enables using the same timing analysis and synthesis as with the original component model.

Keyword
Model-Driven Development, Component model, Embedded systems, Security.
National Category
Computer Systems Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14455 (URN)10.1109/ITNG.2012.103 (DOI)2-s2.0-84863908276 (Scopus ID)978-076954654-4 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Information Technology, ITNG 2012; Las Vegas, 16 April 2012 through 18 April 2012
Available from: 2012-04-13 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved
3. Design of Adaptive Security Mechanisms for Real-Time Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of Adaptive Security Mechanisms for Real-Time Embedded Systems
2012 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7159, Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Springer, 2012, 121-134 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introducing security features in a system is not free and brings along its costs and impacts. Considering this fact is essential in the design of real-time embedded systems which have limited resources. To ensure correct design of these systems, it is important to also take into account impacts of security features on other non-functional requirements, such as performance and energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to perform trade-off analysis among non-functional requirements to establish balance among them. In this paper, we target the timing requirements of real-time embedded systems, and introduce an approach for choosing appropriate encryption algorithms at runtime, to achieve satisfaction of timing requirements in an adaptive way, by monitoring and keeping a log of their behaviors. The approach enables the system to adopt a less or more time consuming (but presumably stronger) encryption algorithm, based on the feedback on previous executions of encryption processes. This is particularly important for systems with high degree of complexity which are hard to analyze statistically. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Springer, 2012
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 7159
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14456 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-28166-2_12 (DOI)000306351300012 ()2-s2.0-84857290766 (Scopus ID)978-364228165-5 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Symposium on Engineering Secure Software and Systems (ESSoS)
Note

4th International Symposium, ESSoS 2012, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, February, 16-17, 2012. Proceedings

Available from: 2012-04-13 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved
4. The Role of Schedulers in Model-Driven Development of Real-Time Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Schedulers in Model-Driven Development of Real-Time Systems
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Design of real-time embedded systems is a complex and challenging task. Model-driven development has the potential to reduce the design complexity of real-time embedded systems by increasing the abstraction level, enabling analysis at earlier phases of development, and automatic generation of code from the models. In this context, capabilities of schedulers as part of the underlying platform play an important role. They can affect the complexity of code generators and how the model is implemented on the platform. Also, the way a scheduler monitors timing behaviors of tasks and schedules them can facilitate extraction of runtime information. This information can then be used as feedback to the original model in order to identify parts of the model that may require to be re-designed and modified. In this paper, we describe our work in providing these features by introducing a second layer scheduler on top of OSE real-time operating system’s scheduler. The approach can also contribute to the predictability of systems by bringing more awareness to the scheduler about the type of real-time tasks (i.e., periodic, sporadic, and aperiodic) that are to be scheduled, and the information that should be monitored and logged for each type.

Series
MRTC report, ISSN 1404-3041
National Category
Computer Systems Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14457 (URN)MDH-MRTC-264/2012-1-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2012-04-13 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved
5. Modeling and Trade-off Analysis of NFRs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Trade-off Analysis of NFRs
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: , 2012
Series
MRTC report, ISSN 1404-3041
National Category
Computer Systems Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14546 (URN)MDH-MRTC-267/2012-1-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2012-04-30 Created: 2012-04-30 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved

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