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Reliable and Low Latency Transmission in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
ABB, Corporate Research.
ABB, Corporate Research.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7159-7508
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2419-2735
2011 (English)In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 5, 866-873 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The major advantages with Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) in process automation are cable cost reduction, enhanced flexibility and enabling new emerging applications such as wireless control. However, transmission over the wireless channel is prone to noise and interference which causes packets to be erroneous received at the receiver node. To improve the link reliability in lossy channels, error correcting codes are commonly used. In this paper we discuss the use of forward error correction (FEC) codes in IWSN in order not only to improve the link reliability but also to reduce the number of retransmissions in harsh industrial environments. We propose a FEC scheme suitable for MAC level protection where the packet is divided into groups and encoded using systematic FEC codes. We have implemented different FEC codes in a typical IWSN chip to evaluate memory consumption and to ensure that we are not violating the strict timing rules for acknowledgment. Our results show that some FEC codes are suitable to be implemented in a typical IWSN node while several fails due to large memory footprint or to long encoding and decoding time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Niagara Falls, Canada, 2011. Vol. 5, 866-873 p.
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13623DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2011.07.120Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84856426250OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-13623DiVA: diva2:466166
Conference
The First International Workshop on Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCS)
Available from: 2012-09-06 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2016-06-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On Reliable Real Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Reliable Real Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the industrial automation, Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) have been increasingly applied due to a great number of benefits such as convenient installation, flexible deployment and cost efficiency. Compared with conventional wireless systems, IWSNs have more stringent requirements communication reliability and real time performance. However, IWSNs are frequently deployed in a hash industrial environment with electromagnetic disturbances, moving objects and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication. Because of the vulnerability of wireless signal, IWSNs are under high risk oftransmission failures, which may result in missing or delaying of process orcontrol data. For industrial automation, missing the process or control deadlineis intolerable, which may terminate industrial application and finally result in economic loss and safety problems. From hierarchy point of view, the high communication reliability and low communication latency can be achieved from different network layers. OnMAC layer, existing protocols in IWSNs only provide automatic repeat request (ARQ) to improve reliability at the cost of real time performance. Analternative method is to apply Forward Error Correction (FEC) mechanism on MAC layer to provide more reliable transmissions and reduce acknowledgement messages by recovering error data. On network layer, routing protocolplays an important role in both communication reliability and latency. Traditionalrouting protocols in IWSNs are either hardly able to fulfill both of these requirements or overcomplicated.In this thesis, we initially explore the possibilities of introducing FEC intoIWSN under the requirements of the existing standard on MAC layer. Then we propose compatible and flexible FEC schemes on MAC layer for IWSNs without violating the standard format. Routing protocols based on flooding are proved to increase the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) by transmission diversity.We propose reliable and robust routing protocols with respect to high reliability and real time performance for IWSNs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2012
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 158
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15270 (URN)978-91-7485-082-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-10-16, Gamma, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-09-10 Created: 2012-09-09 Last updated: 2012-10-02Bibliographically approved
2. On Reliable and Deadline-Constrained Communication in Wireless Industrial Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Reliable and Deadline-Constrained Communication in Wireless Industrial Networks
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Along with the quick development of wireless communication technologies, industrial automation networks are also in unceasing evolution. Industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN) have been increasingly adopted in industrial automation systems. Although there are a number of advantages of replacing cables with wireless links, such as cost reduction, enhanced scalability and flexibility, the stringent requirements on communication reliability and meeting firm deadlines from industrial mission-critical applications must still be fulfilled. Also, transmissions over wireless channels in industrial environments are prone to noise and interferences, resulting in frequent erroneous packet deliveries. Although industrial automation systems are usually designed to be tolerant of certain communication errors, successive transmission failures may still cause downtime of industrial applications, which might lead to significant economic losses or even serious accidents. This thesis addresses the problems mentioned above and aims to provide reliable and deadline-constrained communication via IWSANs for industrial automation systems. On the MAC layer, existing IWSAN standards utilize automatic repeat request (ARQ) to improve reliability at the cost of additional transmission latency. An alternative method is to use Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes to provide reliable communication by recovering erroneous data and avoiding unnecessary retransmissions. On the MAC layer, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is usually applied in current IWSAN standards for collision-free and deterministic communication. An inappropriate scheduling scheme may introduce high transmission jitter and degrade the quality of control. On the network layer, routing protocols play an important role in both communication reliability and latency. Existing solutions are either hardly able to fulfill all stringent requirements from the mission-critical industrial applications, too complicated to be realized, or lack verification in reality. The contributions of this thesis consist of (i) the possibilities of using FEC schemes in IWSANs is explored under the requirements of existing standards on the MAC layer. A compatible and flexible FEC scheme on the MAC layer for IWSANs that does not violate the standard is proposed and evaluated by simulations. (ii) To guarantee an acceptable control quality, a TDMA scheduling scheme is presented aiming for low communication jitter, and it is compared to classic scheduling schemes. (iii) The advantages of exploiting flooding in IWSANs is discussed; a reliable controlled flooding-based routing protocol is proposed and compared to both traditional routing protocols and other flooding-based protocols. (iv) A complete IWSAN platform is built and the whole protocol stack is implemented. Measurements were conducted in a real industrial environment to verify the correctness of the proposed solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2014
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 167
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26165 (URN)978-91-7485-171-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-08, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-23 Created: 2014-10-23 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved

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