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Support for Hierarchical Scheduling in FreeRTOS
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. (Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Systems (MBEES))ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7448-3381
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. (Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Systems (MBEES))ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2957-0966
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. (Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Systems (MBEES))ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7586-0409
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3469-1834
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2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE 16TH CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA) / [ed] IEEE Industrial Electronic Society, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 1-10 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the implementation of a HierarchicalScheduling Framework (HSF) on an open sourcereal-time operating system (FreeRTOS) to support the temporalisolation between a number of applications, on a single processor.The goal is to achieve predictable integration and reusability ofindependently developed components or applications. We presentthe initial results of the HSF implementation by running it onan AVR 32-bit board EVK1100.

The paper addresses the fixed-priority preemptive schedulingat both global and local scheduling levels. It describes the detaileddesign of HSF with the emphasis of doing minimal changes tothe underlying FreeRTOS kernel and keeping its API intact.Finally it provides (and compares) the results for the performancemeasures of idling and deferrable servers with respect to theoverhead of the implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011. 1-10 p.
Keyword [en]
Real-time systems; hierarchical scheduling framework; fixed-priority scheduling
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13421DOI: 10.1109/ETFA.2011.6059016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-80655128588ISBN: 978-1-4577-0018-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-13421DiVA: diva2:463497
Conference
16th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA) Location: Toulouse, FRANCE Date: SEP 05-09, 2011
Note

Submitted to 16th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory automation (ETFA'11) ©2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE."

Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-09 Last updated: 2014-11-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards a Predictable Component-Based Run-Time System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Predictable Component-Based Run-Time System
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis we propose a technique to preserve the temporal properties of realtime components during their integration and reuse. We propose a new concept of runnable virtual node which is a coarse-grained real-time component that provides functional and temporal isolation with respect to its environment. A virtual node’s interaction with the environment is bounded by both a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of its internal temporal behaviour is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment.

 

The first major contribution of this thesis is the implementation of a Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) on an open source real-time operating system (FreeRTOS) with the emphasis of doing minimal changes to the underlying FreeRTOS kernel and keeping its API intact to support the temporal isolation between a numbers of applications, on a single processor. Temporal isolation between the components during runtime prevents failure propagation between different components.

 

The second contribution of the thesis is with respect to the integration of components, where we first illustrate how the concept of the runnable virtual node can be integrated in several component technologies and, secondly, we perform a proof-of-concept case study for the ProCom component technology where we demonstrate the runnable virtual node’s real-time properties for temporal isolations and reusability.

 

We have performed experimental evaluations on EVK1100 AVR based 32-bit micro-controller and have checked the system behaviour during heavy-load and over-load situations by visualizing execution traces in both hierarchical scheduling and virtual node contexts. The results for the case study demonstrate temporal error containment within a runnable virtual node as well as reuse of the node in a new environment without altering its temporal behaviour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2012
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 145
Keyword
real-time systems, component based software engineering, hierarchical scheduling
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13488 (URN)978-91-7485-054-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-01-09, Kappa, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 10:15 (English)
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PROGRESS
Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-14 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
2. Hierarchical scheduling for predictable execution of real-time software components and legacy systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hierarchical scheduling for predictable execution of real-time software components and legacy systems
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation presents techniques to achieve predictable execution of coarse-grained software components and for preservation of temporal properties of components during their integration and reuse.

The dissertation presents a novel concept runnable virtual node (RVN) which interaction with the environment is bounded both by a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of its internal temporal behaviour is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment. The realization of RVN exploits techniques for hierarchical scheduling to achieve temporal isolation, and the principles from component-based software-engineering to achieve functional isolation. The proof-of-concept case studies executed on a micro-controller demonstrate the preserving of real-time properties within software components for predictable integration and reusability in a new environment, in both hierarchical scheduling and RVN contexts.

Further, a multi-resource server (MRS) is proposed and implemented to enable predictable execution when composing multiple real-time components on a COTS multicore platform. MRS uses resource reservation for both CPU-bandwidth and memory-bus bandwidth to bound the interferences between tasks running on the same core, as well as, between tasks running on different cores. The later could, without MRS, interfere with each other due to contention on a shared memory-bus and memory. The results indicated that MRS can be used to "encapsulate" legacy systems and to give them enough resources to fulfill their purpose. In the dissertation, the compositional schedulability analysis for MRS is also provided and an experimental study is performed to bring insight on the correlation between the server budgets.

We believe that the proposed approaches enable a faster software integration and support legacy reuse and that this work transcend the boundaries of software engineering and real-time systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2014
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 169
Keyword
real-time systems, component integration and reuse, hierarchical scheduling, multicore
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26548 (URN)978-91-7485-179-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-17, R3-151, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
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PPMSchedPROGRESS
Available from: 2014-11-13 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2014-12-03Bibliographically approved

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Inam, RafiaMäki-Turja, JukkaSjödin, MikaelAshjaei, Seyed Mohammad HosseinAfshar, Sara Zargari
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