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HAZARD SCREENING BY CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ECOTOXICITY BIOASSAYS OF SEDIMENT, GROUND AND SURFACE WATER SAMPLED FROM A FIRE POND AND THE SURROUNDING AREA AT AN EXPLOSIVES DESTRUCTION SITE
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. (MERO)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9563-9688
Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. (MERO)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5480-0167
Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. (MERO)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3311-9465
FOI CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
2010 (English)In: Crete 2010, 2nd International Conference, Hazardous and Industrial Waste Management, Proceedings / [ed] E. Gidarakos; R. Cossu; R. Stegmann, 2010, 243-244 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A hazard assessment of sediment, surface and groundwater samples from the burning ground fire pond and the wetland linking the fire pond with a nearby lake at an explosives destruction site was carried out. The assessment was performed on sediment, surface and groundwater samples from the site by a comparison of the results from a chemical analysis (metals, energetic materials (EM) and EM metabolites) with the results from an ecotoxicity test battery. Sediment and water samples were analysed for metals (ICP-MS) and EM and EM metabolites (HPLC-PDA). The explosive substances analysed were TNT, 2-A-4,6-DNT, 2,4-DANT, 2,4-DNT, RDX and HMX. An aquatic ecotoxicity test battery consisting of an acute luminescent bacteria bioassay using (Vibrio fischeri), a direct-contact sediment chronic freshwater benthic crustacean bioassay (Ostracodtoxkit) and a bacterial genotoxic bioassay, Umu-C, using genetically modified Salmonella typhimurium pSk 1002 assessed the toxicity of water, sediment and sediment leachate samples. The results from the chemical analysis and the ecotoxicity testing were evaluated in a principal component multivariate analysis (PCA) using Unscrambler®. The results from the chemical analysis generally showed low contamination levels, apart from samples 2W and 2S, sampled in the fire pond. The toxicity tests showed a low to very low toxicity of the samples, with the exception of an elevated mortality rate and growth inhibition of the sediment sample taken from the lake. In general, the results from the study indicated a low environmental hazard of the samples taken from the destruction site.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. 243-244 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-11702OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-11702DiVA: diva2:394442
Conference
Crete 2010, 2nd International Conference, Hazardous and Industrial Waste Management
Available from: 2011-02-02 Created: 2011-02-02 Last updated: 2013-12-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Assessment of waters with complex contamination: Effect-based methods for evaluating wastewater treatment requirements and efficiency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of waters with complex contamination: Effect-based methods for evaluating wastewater treatment requirements and efficiency
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The access to clean water is one of the prerequisites for a modern, industrialized society. The amount of water withdrawn for human activities has risen exponentially during the last 100 years. This rise in water use is accompanied by the production of vast quantities of contaminated water. These wastewaters may be contaminated by substances ranging from heavy metals and organic compounds to nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous. The aggregate effect of combinations of water contaminants can be difficult to predict as different contaminant substances may interact, leading to additive, synergistic or antagonistic toxic effects in a receiving aquatic ecosystem. With increasing water quality legislation, the pressure to characterize and potentially treat contaminated waters increases. Suitable effect-based assessment methods may greatly reduce the costs of both the wastewater characterization process and the water treatment evaluation. The overall aim of this thesis was to show how a combination of ecotoxicity bioassays may be employed in water treatment method development for initial characterization, assessment of treatment requirements and finally treatment evaluation. The wastewaters characterized originated from different activities such as waste management, metal surfacing and explosives destruction. To fully assess the hazard of the waters sampled, a holistic approach using a combination of chemical tests and bioassays was taken. A combination of acute and chronic assays was used to determine mode-of-action effects and apical endpoints in the aquatic environment. The basic battery consisted of the acute Vibrio fischeri test, the chronic algae test using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and either the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna (for aqueous samples) or the meiobenthic crustacean Heterocypris incongruens (for whole-sediment/soil samples).  In addition to the basic test battery, the mode-of-action Salmonella typhimurium test was used to assess genotoxic effects. Results from the water hazard characterization show that ecotoxicological tests contribute to the evaluation of treatment methods for complex wastewaters by assessing the aggregate biological effect of water treatment. The tests may be used as a screening method to indicate where further treatment may be required, even when chemical measurements show a satisfactory reduction of known contaminants. The toxic effect exerted by the assessed waters did not always correlate with measured levels of contaminants or the chemical measures of bioavailability, e.g. leached fraction. The water treatment evaluation showed that the industrial by-product pine bark is an effective adsorbent for capturing metal contaminants from landfill leachates and stormwater. The pine bark column filter had higher zinc removal efficiency than the polonite filter and the combination filter column with pine bark/polonite. In conclusion, a pine bark filter is a suitable alternative to activated carbon for small-scale, decentralized treatment of wastewaters. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity tests were able to detect effects of unknown contaminants and provided unique characterization data, which complemented the information provided by the chemical analyses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2012. 71 p.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 127
Keyword
Effect-based test methods; wastewater treatment; ecotoxicology; bioassays
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14624 (URN)978-91-7485-073-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-13, Gamma, Mälardalens högskola, Högskoleplan 1, Västerås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
CLEANBIOREX
Available from: 2012-05-21 Created: 2012-05-18 Last updated: 2013-11-28Bibliographically approved

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