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Breakfast consumption and CVD risk factors in European adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study
Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9604-462X
Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain.
Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
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2013 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, no 7, 1296-1305 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective To examine the association between breakfast consumption and CVD risk factors in European adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Breakfast consumption was assessed by the statement 'I often skip breakfast' and categorized into 'consumer', 'occasional consumer' and 'skipper'. Blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), TAG, insulin and glucose were measured and BMI, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Setting The European Union-funded HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Subjects European adolescents, aged 12·50- 17·49 years, from ten cities within the HELENA study (n 2929, n 925 with blood sample, 53 % females). Results In males, significant differences across breakfast consumption category ('consumer', 'occasional consumer' and 'skipper') were seen for age, BMI, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and LDL-C; in females, for cardiorespiratory fitness, skinfold thickness, BMI, insulin and HOMA-IR. In overweight/obese males significant differences were also seen for TC and LDL-C, whereas no differences were observed in non-overweight males or in females regardless of weight status. Conclusions Our findings among European adolescents confirm previous data indicating that adolescents who regularly consume breakfast have lower body fat content. The results also show that regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents, and with a healthier cardiovascular profile, especially in males. Eating breakfast regularly may also negate somewhat the effect of excess adiposity on TC and LDL-C, especially in male adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 16, no 7, 1296-1305 p.
Keyword [en]
diet surveys; risk factors; physical fitness; body composition; blood; adolescent
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-10522DOI: 10.1017/S1368980012000973ISI: 000319614800019Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84878462949OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-10522DiVA: diva2:359128
Projects
Helena-projektet
Available from: 2012-05-04 Created: 2010-10-26 Last updated: 2016-03-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Breakfast habits among European adolescents: The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breakfast habits among European adolescents: The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to study the associations of individual and socio-environmental factors with breakfast habits among adolescents on a European level.

 

Methods: The HELENA-study (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) is a multi-centre cross-sectional, school-based study including 3528 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.49 years) from 10 European cities inEurope. Data was collected during the 2006-2007 academic year. Breakfast habits were assessed by a computerised, self-administered, 24-h recall and by questionnaires. The whole day dietary intake, measured with the computerised 24-h recall, was evaluated by comparing a self-administered and an interviewed 24-h recall. The socio-demographical factors used were sex, age, region inEurope (southern versus northern/central), mother and father’s education and occupation, family structure and family affluence. Body composition was measured with weight, height, waist circumference and skinfold thickness. Blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood lipids, insulin and glucose were also measured.

 

Results: The evaluation between the self-administered and interview 24-h recall showed generally good agreement between the two methods. Few adolescents (4 %) had a ‘high-quality’ breakfast. Breakfast consumption on both recall days was reported among 77 % (24-h recall) and 55 % reported slightly disagreeing to strongly disagreeing with the statement ‘I often skip breakfast’. Younger adolescents, adolescents from the northern/central part of Europe and adolescents from families with high socio-demographical status were more likely to report consuming a ‘high-quality’ breakfast while breakfast consumption versus breakfast skipping were inappreciably associated with socio-demographical factors. Personal factors (‘hunger’, ‘taste of the food’ ‘concern for health’) and the socio-environmental factor (‘parents or guardian’) were the most important influences on the adolescents’ choice of food at breakfast. Regular ‘breakfast consumption’ was associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in both boys and girls, and with a healthier cardiovascular profile, especially in boys.

 

Conclusion: The public health implications of poor breakfast consumption habits are considerable. This work highlights the need to promote breakfast, especially a ‘high-quality’ breakfast, among adolescents, particularly older adolescents, adolescents from the southern part of Europe and adolescents from families with low socio-demographical status.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet, 2011. 59 p.
Keyword
Breakfast; adolescents; socio-demographical factors; dietary assessment; 24-h recall; food groups; cardiovascular disease risk factors; Europe
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13930 (URN)978-91-7457-424-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-16, Red seminarium room, Plan 6, NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
HELENA
Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-05 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved

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