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Human Detection and Tracking with UWB radar
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. (ESSH)
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As robots and automated machineries are increasingly replacing the manual operations, protecting humans who are working in collaboration with these machines is becoming an increasingly important task. Technologies such as cameras, infra-red and seismic sensors as well as radar systems are used for presence detection and localization of human beings. Among different radar sensors, Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radar has shown some advantages such as providing the distance to the object with good precision and high performance even under adverse weather and lightning conditions. In contrary to traditional radar systems which use a specific frequency and high output power, UWB Radar uses a wide frequency band (>500 MHz) and low output power to measure the distance to the object.

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate UWB radar system for protecting humans around dangerous machinery in environments like mines where conditions like dirt, fog, and lack of light cause other technologies such as cameras to have a limited functionality. Experimental measurements are done to validate the hardware and to investigate its constraints.

Comparison between two dominant UWB radar technologies is performed: Impulse and M-sequence UWB radar for static human being detection. The results show that M-sequence UWB radar is better suited for detecting the static human target at larger distances. The better performance comes at the cost of higher power usage. Measurements of human walking in different environments is done to measure and compare the background noise and radar reflection of the human body. A human phantom is developed and choice of material and shape for it is discussed. The reflection of the phantom is analyzed and compared with the reflection of a human trunk. Furthermore, the choice of frequency in discerning human beings is discussed.

Signal processing algorithms and filters are developed for tracking of the human presence, position and movements. These algorithms contain pre-processing of the signal such as removing the background, detection and positioning techniques.

Abstract [sv]

I takt med att robotar och automatiska maskiner i ökande grad ersätter manuella arbetsuppgifter, ökar behovet av skydd för människor som arbetar tillsammans med dessa maskiner. Teknologier såsom kameror, infraröda och seismiska sensorer samt radarsystem används för närvarodetektering och lokalisering av människor. Bland olika radarsensorer har Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radarn visat några fördelar, såsom att ge avstånd till objektet med god precision och hög prestanda även i ogynnsamma väder- och ljushållanden. Till skillnad från traditionella radarsystem som använder en specifik frekvens och hög uteffekt, använder UWB Radar ett brett frekvensband (> 500 MHz) och låg uteffekt för att mäta avstånd till objekt.

Syftet med den här avhandlingen är att använda UWB-radarsystem för att skydda människor som vistas i närhet av farliga maskiner i miljöer som gruvor, där förhållanden som smuts, dimma och brist på ljus gör att andra tekniker såsom kameror får en minskad funktionalitet. Experimentella mätningar görs för att validera hårdvaran och för att undersöka dess begränsningar.

Jämförelse mellan två dominerande UWB-radarteknologier: Impuls och M-sekvens UWB-radar för statisk detektering av människa utförs. Resultaten visar att M-sekvensen UWB-radar är bättre lämpad för att detektera scenariot med statiska mänskliga mål på större avstånd. Den bättre prestanda kräver en högre strömförbrukning. Mätningar av mänsklig gång i olika miljöer görs för att mäta och jämföra bakgrundsbrus och radarreflektion av människokroppen. En mänsklig modell utvecklas och materialval och form diskuteras. Reflektionen från modellen analyseras och jämförs med reflektionen från en mänsklig bål. Vidare diskuteras valet av frekvens för särskiljning av människor.

Signalbehandlingsalgoritmer och filter utvecklas för att spåra människans närvaro, position och rörelser. Dessa algoritmer innehåller förbehandling av signalen såsom att ta bort bakgrund, detektering och positioneringstekniker.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2019.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 280
Keywords [en]
UWB radar, signal processing, human detection
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45104ISBN: 978-91-7485-435-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-45104DiVA, id: diva2:1346671
Presentation
2019-10-11, R2-208, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
ESSHAvailable from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experimental Comparison Study of UWB Technologies for Static Human Detection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Comparison Study of UWB Technologies for Static Human Detection
2016 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB 2016) ICUWB 2016, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper compares two dominant Ultra Wide Rand(UWB) radar technologies Impulse and M-sequence for static human being detection in free space. The hardware and software platform for each system is described separately. These two radar platform performances are tested in real conditions and the results show that M-sequence UWB radar is better suited for detecting the static human target in larger distances.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33944 (URN)000391849700184 ()2-s2.0-85011039435 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-1317-3 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB 2016) ICUWB 2016, 16 Oct 2016, Nanjing, China
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsESS-H - Embedded Sensor Systems for Health Research Profile
Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
2. Study of the Environment Effect by M-Sequence UWB Radar on Detection of a Walking Human
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the Environment Effect by M-Sequence UWB Radar on Detection of a Walking Human
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements & Applications (CAMA) CAMA 2016, 2016, article id 7815740Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experimental comparison study of human movement and presence detection in different environments using ultra-wide-band (UWB) M-Sequence radar. The benchmarking measurements are made in an anechoic chamber and repeated in an open office environment. The wave forms of the background noise and scattered amplitudes of a human body are measured and compared. The result is analyzed and discussed. A set of detection algorithms and filters which are developed to track the human movement and presence is presented and the tracking results in these two environments are compared to each other.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33943 (URN)10.1109/CAMA.2016.7815740 (DOI)000404437900011 ()2-s2.0-85013200643 (Scopus ID)9781467389327 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements and Applications, CAMA 2016; Syracuse; United States; 23 October 2016 through 27 October 2016; Category numberCFP1699X-ART; Code 125953
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsESS-H - Embedded Sensor Systems for Health Research Profile
Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
3. Comparison of UWB Radar Back-Scattering by the Human Torso and a Phantom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of UWB Radar Back-Scattering by the Human Torso and a Phantom
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An Ultra Wide Band(UWB) radar is used to measure the cross section of a human phantom indifferent polarizations of the receiver antenna. The choice of material and shape for the human phantom is discussed. The material used in the experiment(wet sand) dielectric properties measured by a retromodeling technique and then calculated by mixture formulas. The appropriate frequency choice for the application is discussed.

Keywords
Ultra Wide Band, Radar, Human Detection, Phantom, Mie Scattering, Complex Permittivity
National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41309 (URN)10.1109/CAMA.2018.8530483 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058273104 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The International Conference on Antenna Measurement and Applications – 2018 IEEE CAMA
Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved

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Hozhabri, Melika

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