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Swedish Experience of the Deammonification Process in a Biofilm System
Purac AB, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8869-6513
2011 (English)In: Swedish experience with deammonification process in biofilm system, 2011, p. 1333-1345Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Based on results from many years of pilot plant experiments a one-stage deammonification

process for treatment of supernatant from dewatering of digested sludge has been applied in a

full scale at the Himmerfjärden wastewater treatment plant in the Stockholm region. The plant

was designed for nitrogen load of 480 kg d-1 and is based on the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

(MBBR), with about 32% of its volume filled with suspended carriers (K1H, Kaldnes®). An

outer biofilm layer performs nitritation while an inner layer the anammox reaction.

Experience gained from more than 2 years of operation of the plant is presented in the paper. After an

effective start–up period of about 6-7 months (totally 10 months) over 80% nitrogen removal

efficiency was obtained and nitrogen removal rates reached almost 2g m-2 d at a temperature of

28 oC. The nitrite production was the limiting step for the anammox reaction. Intermittent

aeration was used to secure a suitable ratio of aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the biofilm.

Inhibition of the ammonia oxidizers was observed at concentrations over 15 mg l-1 of free

ammonia as NH3. The free ammonia was controlled by a combination of different strategies

including aeration time, influent load and effluent recirculation. Conductivity proved to be a

suitable tool for the process monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. p. 1333-1345
Keywords [en]
Anammox, biofilm, deammonification, nitrogen removal, supernatant, suspended carriers, DeAmmon®
National Category
Water Treatment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43255OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-43255DiVA, id: diva2:1307212
Conference
Proceedings of the IWA/Water Environment Federation, Nutrient and Recovery Conference 2011(1), 1067–1079
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Start-up and operational strategies for deammonification plants: - a study with one-stage moving bed biofilm reactors treating reject water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Start-up and operational strategies for deammonification plants: - a study with one-stage moving bed biofilm reactors treating reject water
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To limit eutrophication, wastewater treatment plants use biological methods to convert degraded nitrogen to nitrogen gas. Deammonification, or partial nitritation in combination with anammox, has been shown to be an energy efficient process. This process is currently implemented in approximately 150 full-scale plants, and mainly on reject waters, the liquid fraction after dewatering of anaerobic digestion at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Implementation has been impeded by the slow growth of anammox bacteria, and 99% of the full-scale plants using the process have been using different methods to inoculate the process with anammox bacteria from elsewhere. Separate reject water installations, however, have shown high nitrous oxide emissions, which could increase the total carbon footprint.

The objective of this thesis was to develop and validate a start-up concept using the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) technique applied to reject water, and to investigate how the operational strategies could be optimized to limit potential nitrous oxide emissions. The results show that a one-stage deammonification process based on the MBBR technology with indigenous anammox bacteria originating from the reject water can be set up within a applicable time frame (<100 days). This was validated in two laboratory reactors and in two full-scale studies. Reject water originating from both mesophilic and thermophilic digested sludge was used. Anammox growth and nitrogen reduction were detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chemical analysis, respectively. The start-up time was 72 days in the laboratory and 120 days in full-scale. In laboratory scale, there was no improvement in start-up time when adding external anammox inoculum. Results from a screening study of seven reject waters and their content of anammox bacteria using qPCR indicated the presence of 104–105 genome units anammox per mL in reject water, which could be sufficient for starting up deammonification plants within an applicable time frame.

A final case study shows the potential of decreasing nitrous oxide emissions when a full-scale plant treating reject water was modified from nitrification/denitrification using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to a deammonification process using the MBBR technique. The nitrous oxide emissions decreased from 10% to 0.1–0.7% of total nitrogen load with the change of operation mode. Further optimization by pH set point led to lower emission values. This effect is thought to be linked to the lower aeration ratio and increase in complete denitrification of dissolved nitrous oxide at higher pH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2019
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 290
National Category
Water Treatment
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43258 (URN)978-91-7485-427-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-10, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova, 2015-02422
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved

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