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Engineering Strength Response-Time Analysis: A Timing Analysis Approach for the Development of Real-Time Systems
Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2957-0966
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [sv]

Vid utvecklingen av datorsystem som är en del av en större produkt, som t.ex. styrsystemet i en bil, ett flygplan eller medicinsk utrustning, ställs det ofta mycket hårda krav på säkerhet och tillförlitlighet. En av målsättningarna är även att hålla nere produkt- och utvecklingskostnaden, samtidigt som man vill öka kundnyttan genom att öka innehållet, dvs. funktionaliteten.

Ökningen i antalet funktioner, och komplexiteten den medför, ställer krav på bättre utvecklingsmetoder, -modeller och -verktyg. Att analysera svarstider genom s.k. responstidsanalys (RTA) är ett sätt att kunna garantera systemets tidsbeteende innan produkten tas i drift. I denna avhandling presenteras nya tekniker som syftar till att förbättra existerande RTA-metoder, vilket konkret leder till följande förbättringar:

q Precisionen i de beräknade svarstiderna blir avsevärt högre än tidigare (typiskt ca 15% kortare responstider).

q Analyserna kan göras avsevärt snabbare än tidigare (typiskt ca 100 ggr snabbare än tidigare).

Genom att kombinera dessa två helt oberoende tekniker, behöver man ej offra precision för snabb analys eller vice versa. Det bästa av två världar uppnås i en och samma analysmetod; snabb analystid och precisa svarstider. Högre precision i svarstider möjliggör antingen ökad funktionalitet inom ramen för en given produktkostnad, eller en lägre kostnad för en given funktionalitet. Snabbare analysmetoder innebär att utvecklingsverktyg nu kan använda RTA i praktiken även för riktigt stora system med hundratals, ja även tusentals, funktioner.

Speciellt säkerhetskritiska tillämpningar som måste vara oerhört säkra och tillförlitliga, och många gånger måste genomgå en dyr och tidskrävande certifieringsprocess, kan dra nytta av RTA. En stor del av svensk exportindustri såsom Volvo, Saab, och ABB utvecklar realtidssystem för vilka denna forskning skulle kunna vara av strategisk betydelse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. , 51 p.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 13
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Datavetenskap
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63ISBN: 91-88834-57-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-63DiVA: diva2:121224
Public defence
2005-05-27, Gamma, Västerås, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2013-12-03
List of papers
1. Tighter Response-Times for Tasks with Offsets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tighter Response-Times for Tasks with Offsets
2004 (English)In: Real-time and Embedded Computing Systems and Applications Conference (August 2004), 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4200 (URN)
Conference
10th Real-time and Embedded Computing Systems and Applications Conference (RTCSA '04), Gothenburg, Sweden, August, 2004
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2015-07-29Bibliographically approved
2. Efficient Resonse-Time Analysis for Tasks with Offset
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Resonse-Time Analysis for Tasks with Offset
2004 (English)In: Proceedings - IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, 2004, 462-471 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We present a method that enables an efficient implementation of the approximative response-timeanalysis (RTA) for tasks with offsets presented by Tindell [(1992)] and Palencia Gutierrez et al. [(1998)]. The method allows for significantly faster implementations of schedulability tools using RTA. Furthermore, reducing computation time, from tens of milliseconds to just a fraction of a millisecond, as we show, is a step towards online RTA in for example admission control systems. We formally prove that our reformulation of earlier presented equations is correct and allow us to statically represent parts of the equation, reducing the calculations during fix-point iteration. We show by simulations that the speedup when using our method is substantial. When task sets grow beyond a trivial number of tasksand/or transactions a speed-up of more than 100 times (10 transactions and 10 tasks/transaction) compared to the original analysis can be obtained.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4201 (URN)10.1109/RTTAS.2004.1317293 (DOI)000222239400051 ()2-s2.0-7744220982 (Scopus ID)0769521487 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings - RTAS 2004 10th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium; Toronto; Canada; 25 May 2004 through 28 May 2004
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2016-10-31Bibliographically approved
3. Fast and Tight Response-Times for Tasks with Offset
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast and Tight Response-Times for Tasks with Offset
2005 (English)In: Proceedings - Euromicro Conference on Real-Time SystemsVolume 2005, 2005, 2005, 127-136 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In previous work, we presented a tight approximate response-time analysis for tasks with offsets. While providing a tight bound on response times, the tight analysis exhibits similarly long execution times as does the traditional methods for calculating response-times for tasks with offsets. The existing method for fast analysis of tasks with offsets is not applicable to the tight analysis. In this paper we extend the fast analysis to handle the distinguishing trait of the tight analysis; continuously increasing interference functions. Furthermore, we provide another speedup; by introducing pessimism in the modelling of interference at certain points, we speed up the convergence of the numerical solving for response-times without increasing the pessimism of the resulting response-times. The presented fast-and-tight analysis is guaranteed to calculate the same response-times as the tight analysis, and in a simulation study we obtain speedups of more than two orders of magnitude for realistically sized tasks sets compared to the tight analysis. We also demonstrate that the fast-and-tight analysis has comparable execution time to that of the fast analysis. Hence, we conclude that the fast- and-tight analysis is the preferred analysis technique when tight estimates of response-times are needed, and that we do not need to sacrifice tightness for analysis speed; both are obtained with the fast-and-tight analysis.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4202 (URN)10.1109/ECRTS.2005.15 (DOI)000231059000014 ()2-s2.0-33749043658 (Scopus ID)9780769524009 (ISBN)
Conference
17th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, ECRTS 2005; Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands; Spain; 6 July 2005 through 8 July 2005
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2015-07-29Bibliographically approved
4. Efficient Development of Real-Time Systems Using Hybrid Scheduling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Development of Real-Time Systems Using Hybrid Scheduling
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications, ESA'05, 2005, 53-59 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper will show how advanced embedded realtime systems, with functionality ranging from time-triggered control functionality to event-triggered user interaction, can be made more efficient. Efficient with respect to development effort as well as run-time resource utilization. This is achieved by using a hybrid, static and dynamic, scheduling strategy. The approach is applicable even for hard real-time systems since tight response time guarantees can be given by the response time analysis method for tasks with offsets. An industrial case study will demonstrate how this approach enables more efficient use of computational resources, resulting in a cheaper or more competitive product since more functionality can be fitted into legacy, resource constrained, hardware.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4203 (URN)2-s2.0-60749127009 (Scopus ID)978-193241553-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2005 International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications, ESA'05;Las Vegas, NV;27 June 2005 through 30 June 2005
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2015-07-31Bibliographically approved

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