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On Stabilization of Sensorless Synchronous Motor Drives and Traction Converters
Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen behandlar först och främst styrning av elmotordrifter, men vi tittar även på styrning av nätomriktare för stabil framdrivning av tåg.

Två industriprojekt är rapporterade i avhandlingen, i form av delrapporterna ”Sensorless Control of Electrically Excited Synchronous Machines”, ABB Corporate Research och ”Stable and Passive Traction”, Bombardier Transportation.

Beträffande styrning av elektriska motorer, speciellt synkrona växelströmsmotorer, är fokus på området sensorlös reglering. Med sensorlös reglering menas att motorn inte är beskaffad med någon vartalsgivare eller rotorvinkelgivare. Om man kan styra motorn på ett bra sett utan att montera en givare, kan man få ett mindre, billigare och ett mer robust drivsystem. Ökad robusthet erhålls eftersom man inte behöver lita på en givare som eventuellt kan ge felsignal eller i värsta gå sönder.

Algoritmen för estimering av rotorvinkel är en vidareutveckling av den så kallade spänningsmodellen; vi kallar den ”Statically Compensated Voltage Model” (SCVM). För drivsystem som innehåller permanentmagnetiserade synkronmotorer, bevisas garanterad synkronisering från godtycklig initialvinkel vid uppstart och dessutom vid reversering.

I delprojektet tillsammans med ABB Corporate Research skulle SCVM kunna användas som ett ”backup-system” då ett fel i den ordinarie varvtalsgivaren upptäcks. Detta skulle innebära att drivsystemet kan stoppas på ett lugnt och säkert sätt. I bästa fall skulle man kunna fortsätta köra drivsystemet som om inget hade hänt, utan istället byta varvtalsgivaren vid nästa servicetillfälle.

I delprojektet tillsammans med Bombardier Transportation är fokus på styrning av nätomriktare, som indirekt används för framdrivning av tåg. Undersökningen innefattar möjligheten att styra omriktaren på ett sådant sätt att omriktaren uppträder som en passiv komponent. Passivitet gäller då vinkeln mellan inkommande ström och spänning inte överstiger +90° eller understiger -90°. Är inte omriktaren ”passiv” kommer den att interferera med andra tågs omriktare. Nätet kan då bli instabilt och i värsta fall kollapsa. Med hjälp av en annan topologi av strömregulator så utvidgades frekvensområdet då omriktaren uppträder som en passiv komponent.

Abstract [en]

In this thesis we discuss and analyze aspects and methods for low-speed poeration, startup, and particularly rotational reversal for sensorless control of non-salient permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs), i.e., stabilization in the low-speed region. Furtermore, a speed and position estimation algorithm for speed-sensorless control of electrically excited synchronous machines (EESMs) with damper windings is developed. For EESM drives, an initial rotor position estimation algorithm is also developed. Regarding the PMSM drives, it is shown that the sensorless drive synchronizes from any initial rotor position, recovers from initial rotation in the wrong direction, and also reverses rotation without lockup or instability phenomena.

The result regarding sensorless control and preformance in the low-speed region are simulated and experimentally verified, which indicates that the proposed estimator is effective. An additional subject in this thesis is control traction converters. One major problem is that trains with pulse-width-modulation (PWM) converters have active input impedance; thus the phase shift between the input current and voltage is greater than +90 degrees or less than -90 degrees for a certain ferquency region. This may result in poor damping and in worst case unstable operation. Here, it is shown that via sophisticated current control and improved feed-forward, one may stabilize the system with respect to passivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. , 24 p.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 16
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Elektronik
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-57ISBN: 91-88834-79-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-57DiVA: diva2:121145
Public defence
2005-09-28, Kappa, Västerås, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24
List of papers
1. Unified Sensorless Vector Control of Synchronous and Induction Motors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unified Sensorless Vector Control of Synchronous and Induction Motors
2003 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, Vol. 50, no 1, 153-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a unified theory for sensorless flux estimation and vector control of induction motors and nonsalient permanent-magnet synchronousmotors (PMSMs) is developed. It is shown that an estimator and vector controller for one of the motor types can also be applied to the other, with only minor modifications necessary. Two candidate estimators are considered: a variant of the well-known "voltage model" (VM) and a phase-locked-loop-type speed and position estimator. These are applied to both motor types, and evaluated experimentally. For the nonsalient PMSM, an important result is that synchronization can be guaranteed from any initial rotor position.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4186 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2002.807653 (DOI)000180713800018 ()2-s2.0-0037322514 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2016-01-15Bibliographically approved
2. Guaranteed Synchronization of Sensorless Non-Salient PMSM Drives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guaranteed Synchronization of Sensorless Non-Salient PMSM Drives
2003 (English)In: Proc. Eur. Conf. on Power Electron. and Applicat., 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4187 (URN)
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2015-07-29Bibliographically approved
3. Synchronization at Startup and Stable Rotation Reversal of Sensorless Nonsalient PMSM Drives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synchronization at Startup and Stable Rotation Reversal of Sensorless Nonsalient PMSM Drives
2006 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, Vol. 53, no 2, 379-387 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a variant of the well-known "voltage model" is applied to rotor position estimation for sensorless control of nonsalient permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Particular focus is on a low-speed operation. It is shown that a guaranteed synchronization from any initial rotor position and stable reversal of rotation can be accomplished, in both cases under load. Stable rotation reversal is accomplished by making the estimator insensitive to the stator resistance. It is also shown that the closed-loop speed dynamics are similar to those of a sensored drive for speeds above approximately 0.1 per unit, provided that the model stator inductance is underestimated. Experimental results support the theory.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4188 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2006.870731 (DOI)000236776900005 ()2-s2.0-33645724479 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2013-01-15Bibliographically approved
4. Sensorless Control of Electrically Excited Synchronous Machines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensorless Control of Electrically Excited Synchronous Machines
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4189 (URN)
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
5. Stable and Passive Traction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stable and Passive Traction
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4190 (URN)
Available from: 2005-11-24 Created: 2005-11-24 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved

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