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Evaluation of the IngVaL Pedobarography System for Monitoring of Walking Speed
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. (Embedded Sensor Systems for Health (ESS-H))ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2686-4539
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7882-5438
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4298-9550
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8704-402X
2018 (English)In: Healthcare Informatics Research, ISSN 2093-3681, E-ISSN 2093-369X, ISSN 2093-3681, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 118-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives

Walking speed is an important component of movement and is a predictor of health in the elderly. Pedobarography, the study of forces acting between the plantar surface of the foot and a supporting surface, is an approach to estimating walking speed even when no global positioning system signal is available. The developed portable system, Identifying Velocity and Load (IngVaL), is a cost effective alternative to commercially available pedobarography systems because it only uses three force sensing resistors. In this study, the IngVaL system was evaluated. The three variables investigated in this study were the sensor durability, the proportion of analyzable steps, and the linearity between the system output and the walking speed.

Methods

Data was collected from 40 participants, each of whom performed five walks at five different self-paced walking speeds. The linearity between the walking speed and step frequency measured with R2 values was compared for the walking speed obtained ‘A’ only using amplitude data from the force sensors, ‘B’ that obtained only using the step frequency, and ‘C’ that obtained by combining amplitude data for each of the 40 test participants.

Results

Improvement of the wireless data transmission increased the percentage of analyzable steps from 83.1% measured with a prototype to 96.6% for IngVaL. The linearity comparison showed that the methods A, B, and C were accurate for 2, 15, and 23 participants, respectively.

Conclusions

Increased sensor durability and a higher percentage of analyzed steps indicates that IngVaL is an improvement over the prototype system. The combined strategy of amplitude and step frequency was confirmed as the most accurate method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Seoul: Korean Society of Medical Informatics (KOSMI) , 2018. Vol. 24, no 2, p. 118-124
Keywords [en]
Humans; Movement; Foot; Walking; Walking Speed
National Category
Medical Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39225DOI: 10.4258/hir.2018.24.2.118ISI: 000432090900004PubMedID: 29770245Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85047476017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-39225DiVA, id: diva2:1206002
Projects
Embedded Sensor Systems (ESS-H)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20120275Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wearable Pedobarography System for Monitoring of Walk Related Parameters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wearable Pedobarography System for Monitoring of Walk Related Parameters
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Health care costs have increased over the last decades due to an ageing population. Therefore, research in personal health monitoring (PHM) has increased in response to this. PHM has advantages such as mobility (monitoring of health at work or at home), early detection of health problems enabling preventive health measures and a reduction of health care cost. Human motion analysis, using for example pedobarography (PBG), is an important subcategory of PHM. PBG is used to study the force fields acting between the plantar surface of the foot and a supporting surface. Gait and posture analysis, prosthetics evaluation and monitoring of recovery from injury or disease are examples of PBG applications. Portable PBG can be performed using force sensing resistors built into the insole inside the shoe.

 In accordance with this, the research aim for this thesis is to design, build and evaluate a wireless wearable measurement system based on PBG for monitoring of walk related parameters. Monitoring of carried weight and walking speed were chosen as the applications for validation of the system. Motivations for choosing these applications are that there is a lack of a wearable system for monitoring of weight while walking and a possible combination with accelerometers to improve the estimation of walking speed. Both walking speed and weight are important factors for estimating energy expenditure. A portable system, that estimates weight while walking, enables monitoring of heavy working conditions.

The main research contributions include design of a PBG measurement system with a sensor implementation resulting in good sensor durability, several novel methods for weight estimation during walk and a novel method for analysing walking intensity and relating it to walking speed. The research results show that the new PBG system, in combination with the novel analysing methods, are suitable for use in wearable systems for monitoring of health related walk parameters.

Abstract [sv]

Kostnaderna för sjukvård har ökat de senaste decennierna på grund av att vi lever allt längre. Därför så har forskningen inom personlig hälsomonitorering (PHM) ökat som ett svar på detta. PHM har fördelar såsom mobilitet (monitorering av hälsa på jobbet eller i hemmet), tidig upptäckt av hälsoproblem gör det möjligt att sätta in förebyggande åtgärder för hälsa och reducera kostnaden för sjukvård. Rörelseanalys på människor, med hjälp av till exempel pedobarografi (PBG), är en viktig underkategori av PHM. PBG används för att studera kraftfält som verkar mellan fotens undersida och en uppbärande yta. Analys av gångstil och kroppshållning, utvärdering av proteser och övervakning av återhämtning från skada eller sjukdom är exempel på tillämpningar för PBG.

 I överrensstämmelse med detta är syftet för forskningen i den här avhandlingen att utforma, bygga och utvärdera ett trådlöst och bärbart mätsystem som bygger på PBG för övervakning av gångrelaterade parametrar. Övervakning av buren vikt och gånghastighet valdes som tillämpningarna för att utvärdera systemet. Motiveringar för att välja dessa tillämpningar är att det finns en brist på bärbara system för övervakning av vikt under gång och att en möjlig kombination med accelerometrar kan förbättra uppskattningen av gånghastighet. Både gånghastighet och vikt är viktiga faktorer vid uppskattning av energiförbrukning. Ett portabelt system, som uppskattar vikt under gång, möjliggör övervakning av tunga arbetsförhållanden.

 De främsta forskningsbidragen inkluderar utformningen av ett mätsystem baserat på PBG med sensorimplementering som ger lång livslängd för sensorerna, flera nya analysmetoder för uppskattning av vikt under gång och en ny analysmetod för gångintensitet som relateras till gånghastighet. Forskningsresultaten visar på att det nya PBG-systemet, i kombination med de nya analysmetoderna, är passande för användning i bärbara system för övervakning av hälsorelaterade gångparametrar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2019
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 301
National Category
Medical Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45546 (URN)978-91-7485-444-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-12-06, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20120275
Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-11-01Bibliographically approved

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Hellstrom, Per Anders RickardÅkerberg, AnnaEkström, MartinFOLKE, MIA

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