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Potential for district heating to lower peak electricity demand in a medium-size municipality in Sweden
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9230-1596
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden faces several challenges with more intermittent power in the energy system. One challenge is to have enough power available in periods with low intermittent production. A solution could be to reduce peak demand and at the same time produce more electricity during these hours. One way of doing this is to convert electricity-based heating in buildings to district heating based on combined heat and power. The study analyzes how much a Swedish municipality can contribute to lowering peak electricity demand. This is done by quantifying the potential to reduce the peak demand for six different scenarios of the future heat demand and heat market shares regarding two different energy carriers: electricity-based heating and district heating. The main finding is that there is a huge potential to decrease peak power demand by the choice of energy carrier for the buildings’ heating system. In order to lower electricity peak demand in the future, the choice of heating system is more important than reducing the heat demand itself. For the scenario with a large share of district heating, it is possible to cover the electricity peak demand in the municipality by using combined heat and power. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 186, p. 1-9
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39192DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.038ISI: 000430785600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85046012248OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-39192DiVA, id: diva2:1205203
Available from: 2018-05-11 Created: 2018-05-11 Last updated: 2019-09-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Heating of buildings from a system perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heating of buildings from a system perspective
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency measures in buildings are considered to have great potential for reducing total energy use, and contribute to a reduced climate and environmental impact. In Sweden, however, there is a focus on bought energy, which does not always reflect the environmental and climate impact. Focusing on bought energy means that a house owner may choose an electricity based heat pump instead of district heating (DH), since heat pumps result in less bought energy compared to DH.

The energy system surrounding the buildings is affected by the choice of energy carriers used for heating. This thesis uses three different methods to study how the energy system is affected. In the first part, primary energy use has been calculated for a simulated building with different heating systems, resulting in different electricity and DH demands. The second part studies the impact on peak demand and annual consumption in the power grid and DH system due to different market shares of electricity based heating and DH. In the third part, the life cycle cost is calculated for different heating solutions from both a building and a socio-economic perspective, for 100 % renewable energy system scenarios.

The results show that the choice of energy carrier has a great influence on primary energy use. However, this depends even more on the calculation method used. Which heating solution, and thus which energy carrier, gives the lowest primary energy use varies with the different methods.

The power grid and DH system are affected by the choice of energy carrier. There is a potential to lower peak demand in the power grid by more efficient heat pumps. But an even greater potential is shown by using DH instead of electricity based heating. A larger share of DH also allows the production of more electricity with the use of combined heat and power.

The life cycle cost for different heating solutions also depends on the method used. From a building owner’s perspective, with current electricity and DH prices, electricity based heating is more economical. However, from a socio-economic perspective, with increasing electricity system costs due to a larger share of variable electricity production in a 100 % renewable system, DH becomes more economically profitable in several scenarios.

The choice of energy carrier for heating in buildings affects the energy system to a high degree. A system perspective is therefore important in local, national and global energy efficiency policies and projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2019
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 297
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45230 (URN)978-91-7485-439-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-05, Sal 320, Högskolan Dalarna, Borlänge, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-18 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved

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Swing Gustafsson, MoaDotzauer, Erik

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