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Asymmetric Multihop Communication in Large Sensor Networks
Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2419-2735
2006 (English)In: 2006 1st International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive ComputingVolume 2006, 2006, 1-7 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the growing interest in wireless sensor networks, energy efficient communication infrastructures for such networks are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we compare and simulate asymmetric and symmetric communication in sensor networks. We do this by extending LEACH, a well-known TDMA cluster-based sensor network architecture, to use asymmetric communication. The extension makes it possible to scale up the network size beyond what is feasible with LEACH and its variants LEACH-C and LEACH-F.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. 1-7 p.
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4003DOI: 10.1109/ISWPC.2006.1613561ISI: 000237179000004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33750394324ISBN: 0780394100 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-4003DiVA: diva2:120518
Conference
2006 1st International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing; Phuket; Thailand; 16 January 2006 through 18 January 2006
Available from: 2006-05-29 Created: 2006-05-29 Last updated: 2016-01-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Using Existing Infrastructure as Support for Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Existing Infrastructure as Support for Wireless Sensor Networks
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling handlar om hur befintliga datorinfrastrukturer i t.ex. sjukhus och industrier kan avlasta sensornätverk med energikrävande uppgifter. Vi har forskat på olika aspekter som gör det möjligt att förlänga livslängden på dessa sensornätverk. Avhandlingen presenterar en ny plattform för sensornätverk tillsammans med inledande simuleringar som påvisar att vår plattform ökar livslängden på dessa typer av nätverk.

Generella sensornätverk är uppbyggda av tätt grupperade, trådlösa, batteridrivna datorer som kan vara så små som en kubikmillimeter. Datorerna kallas för sensorer eller sensornoder eftersom de har en eller flera inbyggda sensorer som känner av sin omgivning. En sensor har till uppgift att samla information från sin omgivning, t.ex. temperatur, fuktighet, vibrationer, hjärtslag eller bilder. Sensorerna skickar sedan informationen till en insamlingsstation någonstans i nätverket.

I de typer av tillämpningar vi tittar på är det viktigt att minimera energiförbrukningen, så att man maximerar livslängden på sensornätverket. Avhandlingen presenterar en lösning där befintlig datorinfrastruktur fungerar som hjälpdatorer/avlastare till ett sensornätverk. Hjälpdatorerna, eller basstationerna som vi kallar dem i avhandlingen, hanterar energikrävande uppgifter som t.ex. vilken sensor som ska kommunicera med vem samt vid vilken tidpunkt etc. Då kan sensorerna i nätverket fokusera på att utföra sina egna uppgifter tills dess att basstationen säger att uppgifterna ändrats.

Simuleringar visar att vår plattform kan skicka upp till 97 % mera information till basstationen än en jämförbar plattform med samma energimängd. 88 % av våra sensorer är fortfarande vid liv när den andra plattformens sensorer förbrukat all sin energi.

Ett exempel på hur dessa typer av nätverk kan användas är att övervaka patienters hälsa och kondition i sjukhus eller sjukhem. Patienter behöver inte ha en fast sängplats där en viss typ av medicinskt övervakningsinstrument finns tillgänglig utan kan placeras där det finns en ledig sängplats. Via trådlös kommunikation skickar sensorerna sedan hälsoinformation som t.ex. hjärtfrekvens och blodtryck till en basstation som i sin tur skickar vidare till ett centralt övervakningsinstrument någonstans på sjukhuset. Övervakningsinstrumentet behandlar informationen och larmar personal med rätt kompetens vid behov. Larmet kan skickas till en mobiltelefon eller en liten handdator som personalen alltid bär med sig. Med larmet skickas även information om var patienten befinner sig och all nödvändig data för att personalen snabbt ska kunna ställa en första diagnos. På detta sätt kan man spara in på antalet specialbyggda sängplatser och slippa dyrbara installationer av medicintekniska utrustningar knutna till en sängplats.

Abstract [en]

Recent advancements in electronic design, such as low-power circuits, energy efficient wireless communication, and improved energy supply, has enabled the vision of wireless sensor networks to become a reality. Wireless sensor networks typically consist of hundreds up to thousands of collaborating low-cost, battery-driven and wireless sensor nodes with scarce resources. The wireless sensor nodes are typical small physical entities, and usually small as a matchbox but can in extreme cases be no larger than a cubic millimeter.

In this thesis we present an architecture called AROS that uses existing infrastructure to aid in the management of wireless sensor networks. As an example, the existing infrastructure could be situated in hospitals or industrial buildings. The existing infrastructure can aid in prolonging the lifetime of the wireless sensor network by having "unlimited'' energy, long range radio capacity, and high-speed computers. We enable prolonged lifetime by centralizing some of the energy consuming administrative functionality of wireless sensor networks.

We show, by simulations, that the AROS architecture is able to prolong the lifetime of the sensor nodes. AROS is compared to a well known cluster based architecture, LEACH. The comparisons show that AROS with static configuration performs at least as well as LEACH in small wireless sensor networks in the size 100x100m, and up to 97 % better in long distance wireless sensor networks in the size of 400x400m. We show that AROS still has got 88 % of its sensor nodes alive when LEACHs' network demises.

In our simulations we have also studied how dynamic network clustering in AROS, using a TDMA scheduler and non-mobile wireless sensor nodes, affects the amount of data received by a base station. We show that AROS is better than LEACH-C in collecting data to the base station with the same total amount of energy for long distance networks and that AROS performs as well or better than LEACH-C in small wireless sensor networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Institutionen för Datavetenskap och Elektronik, 2006
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 66
Keyword
wireless, sensor networks, communication, base station, asymmetric communication, multihop, network lifetime
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Datavetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-144 (URN)91-85485-17-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2006-06-20, Kappa, Hus-U, Gurksaltargatan 9, Västerås, 15:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-05-29 Created: 2006-05-29
2. Centralized Routing for Prolonged Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Centralized Routing for Prolonged Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis centralized routing methods for wireless sensor networks have been studied. The aim has been to prolong network lifetime by reducing the energy consumed by sensor-node communication.

Wireless sensor networks are rapidly becoming common in application areas where information from many sensors is to be collected and acted upon. The use of wireless sensor networks adds flexibility to the network, and the cost of cabling can be avoided.

Wireless sensor networks may consist of several hundreds of small devices, equipped with sensors (e.g. acoustic, seismic or image) that form a wireless network. Each sensor node collects information from its surroundings and sends it to a base station, either from sensor node to sensor node, or directly to the base station.

We have made simulations that show that asymmetric communication with multihop extends the lifetime of large wireless sensor networks. We have also investigated the usefulness of enforcing a minimum separation distance between cluster heads in a cluster based wireless sensor network. The results show that our sensor network performs up to 150% better when introducing a minimum separation distance between cluster heads. The simulations also show that the minimum separation distance resulting in the lowest energy consumption in our network varies with the number of clusters. We have also made an initial study of maximum lifetime routing in sparse wireless sensor networks to be able to see how different heuristic routing algorithms influence the energy consumption of individual sensor nodes, and thus the lifetime of a sparse sensor network. We have also compared the maximum lifetime of the heuristic algorithms to the maximum lifetime of an optimal routing solution. These simulations showed that for some types of applications the choice of heuristic algorithm is more important to prolong network lifetime, than for other types of applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, 2008
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 79
Keyword
Wireless sensor networks, routing, energy efficiency, asymmetric communicaiton, communication, power consumption, computer networks, trådlösa sensornät, trådlös, kommunikation, energikonsumtion
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-486 (URN)978-91-85485-69-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2008-01-18, Kappa, U, Högskoleplan 1, Västerås, 14:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-12-19 Created: 2007-12-19 Last updated: 2016-01-19

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