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A Generic Framework Facilitating Early Analysis of Data Propagation Delays in Multi-Rate Systems
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1276-3609
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3242-6113
Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1687-930X
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2017 (English)In: The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 2017, 8046323Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A majority of multi-rate real-time systems are constrained by a multitude of timing requirements, in addition to the traditional deadlines on well-studied response times. This means, the timing predictability of these systems not only depends on the schedulability of certain task sets but also on the timely propagation of data through the chains of tasks from sensors to actuators. In the automotive industry, four different timing constraints corresponding to various data propagation delays are commonly specified on the systems. This paper identifies and addresses the source of pessimism as well as optimism in the calculations for one such delay, namely the reaction delay, in the state-of-the-art analysis that is already implemented in several industrial tools. Furthermore, a generic framework is proposed to compute all the four end-to-end data propagation delays, complying with the established delay semantics, in a scheduler and hardware-agnostic manner. This allows analysis of the system models already at early development phases, where limited system information is present. The paper further introduces mechanisms to generate job-level dependencies, a partial ordering of jobs, which need to be satisfied by any execution platform in order to meet the data propagation timing requirements. The job-level dependencies are first added to all task chains of the system and then reduced to its minimum required set such that the job order is not affected. Moreover, a necessary schedulability test is provided, allowing for varying the number of CPUs. The experimental evaluations demonstrate the tightness in the reaction delay with the proposed framework as compared to the existing state-of-the-art and practice solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. 8046323
Keyword [en]
Data Propagation Delay, End-to-End Delay, Real-Time, Automotive
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37034DOI: 10.1109/RTCSA.2017.8046323Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85032739692OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-37034DiVA: diva2:1154459
Conference
The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 16 Aug 2017, Hsinchu, Taiwan
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore SystemsDPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and ControlPreView: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software on Multi-core
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2017-11-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Consolidating Automotive Real-Time Applications on Many-Core Platforms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consolidating Automotive Real-Time Applications on Many-Core Platforms
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Automotive systems have transitioned from basic transportation utilities to sophisticated systems. The rapid increase in functionality comes along with a steep increase in software complexity. This manifests itself in a surge of the number of functionalities as well as the complexity of existing functions. To cope with this transition, current trends shift away from today’s distributed architectures towards integrated architectures, where previously distributed functionality is consolidated on fewer, more powerful, computers. This can ease the integration process, reduce the hardware complexity, and ultimately save costs.

One promising hardware platform for these powerful embedded computers is the many-core processor. A many-core processor hosts a vast number of compute cores, that are partitioned on tiles which are connected by a Network-on-Chip. These natural partitions can provide exclusive execution spaces for different applications, since most resources are not shared among them. Hence, natural building blocks towards temporally and spatially separated execution spaces exist as a result of the hardware architecture.

Additionally to the traditional task local deadlines, automotive applications are often subject to timing constraints on the data propagation through a chain of semantically related tasks. Such requirements pose challenges to the system designer as they are only able to verify them after the system synthesis (i.e. very late in the design process).

In this thesis, we present methods that transform complex timing constraints on the data propagation delay to precedence constraints between individual jobs. An execution framework for the cluster of the many-core is proposed that allows access to cluster external memory while it avoids contention on shared resources by design. A partitioning and configuration of the Network-on-Chip provides isolation between the different applications and reduces the access time from the clusters to external memory. Moreover, methods that facilitate the verification of data propagation delays in each development step are provided. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Malardalen University, 2017
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 246
Keyword
Many-Core, Automotive, Network-on-Chip, Real-Time, Timing analysis
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37182 (URN)978-91-7485-359-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-19, Kappa, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved

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Becker, MatthiasMubeen, SaadBehnam, MorisNolte, Thomas

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