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Condition Based Maintenance in the Manufacturing Industry: From Strategy to Implementation
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8729-2955
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The growth of global competition has led to remarkable changes in the way manufacturing companies operate. These changes have affected maintenance and made its role even more crucial for business success. To remain competitive, manufacturing companies must continuously increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their production processes. Furthermore, the introduction of lean manufacturing has increased concerns regarding equipment availability and, therefore, the demand for effective maintenance. That maintenance is becoming more important for the manufacturing industry is evident in current discussions on national industrialization agendas. Digitalization, the industrial internet of things (IoT) and their connections to sustainable production are identified as key enablers for increasing the number of jobs in industry. Agendas such as “Industry 4.0” in Germany and “Smart Industry” in Sweden are promoting the connection of physical items such as sensors, devices and enterprise assets, both to each other and to the internet. Machines, systems, manufactured parts and humans will be closely interlinked to collaborative actions. Every physical object will formulate a cyber-physical system (CPS), and it will constantly be linked to its digital fingerprint and to intensive connection with the surrounding CPSs of its on-going processes.

That said, despite the increasing demand for reliable production equipment, few manufacturing companies pursue the development of strategic maintenance. Moreover, traditional maintenance strategies, such as corrective maintenance, are no longer sufficient to satisfy industrial needs, such as reducing failures and degradations of manufacturing systems to the greatest possible extent. The concept of maintenance has evolved over the last few decades from a corrective approach (maintenance actions after a failure) to a preventive approach (maintenance actions to prevent the failure). Strategies and concepts such as condition based maintenance (CBM) have thus evolved to support this ideal outcome. CBM is a set of maintenance actions based on the real-time or near real-time assessment of equipment conditions, which is obtained from embedded sensors and/or external tests and measurements, taken by portable equipment and/or subjective condition monitoring. CBM is increasingly recognized as the most efficient strategy for performing maintenance in a wide variety of industries. However, the practical implementation of advanced maintenance technologies, such as CBM, is relatively limited in the manufacturing industry.

Based on the discussion above, the objective of this research is to provide frameworks and guidelines to support the development and implementation of condition based maintenance in manufacturing companies.  This thesis will begin with an overall analysis of maintenance management to identify factors needed to strategically manage production maintenance. It will continue with a focus on CBM to illustrate how CBM could be valued in manufacturing companies and what the influencing factors to implement CBM are. The data were collected through case studies, mainly at one major automotive manufacturing site in Sweden. The bulk of the data was collected during a pilot CBM implementation project. Following the findings from these efforts, a formulated maintenance strategy is developed and presented, and factors to evaluate CBM cost effectiveness are assessed. These factors indicate the benefits of CBM, mostly with regard to reducing the probability of experiencing maximal damage to production equipment and reducing production losses, particularly at high production volumes. Furthermore, a process of CBM implementation is presented. Some of the main elements in the process are the selection of the components to be monitored, the techniques and technologies for condition monitoring and their installation and, finally, the analysis of the results of condition monitoring. Furthermore, CBM of machine tools is presented and discussed in this thesis, focusing on the use of vibration monitoring technique to monitor the condition of machine tool spindle units.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Mälardalen University , 2017.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 242
Keyword [en]
Condition based maintenance; Condition monitoring; Manufacturing industry
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37130ISBN: 978-91-7485-355-1 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-37130DiVA: diva2:1151439
Public defence
2017-12-01, Raspen, Mälardalens högskola, Eskilstuna, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
INNOFACTURE - innovative manufacturing development
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Strategic maintenance management: Formulating maintenance strategy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategic maintenance management: Formulating maintenance strategy
2015 (English)In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 18, no 1, 5-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent decades, by introducing lean manufacturing the vulnerability to system disturbances has increased and so, the demand for dependable production equipment. The need for having high production equipment availability causes companies to need a more effective and efficient maintenance strategy in order to stay competitive. Despite the increasing demand on reliable production equipment, few manufacturing companies work with strategic maintenance development and a large part of the manufacturing industry lack clear maintenance strategies. It is therefore difficult to develop the maintenance work in accordance with the strategic goals of the manufacturing companies.

The main objective of this paper is to define a process for formulating maintenance strategy in order to facilitate further development in a strategic way. The problem has been studied by literature review and through case study at one major manufacturing site in Sweden to investigate the company’s view on strategic maintenance development. Hence, a formulated maintenance strategy has been provided and presented. The company’s overall goals considered and translated to the strategic objective of maintenance. Moreover, balanced score card is used as a tool to make a framework of the maintenance strategy. As a result of this study, the company could easily formulate a maintenance strategy by using a simple process based on the tools that they have already used. In addition to this, the result indicated how maintenance strategy can contribute to the company’s business goals.

Keyword
Maintenance strategy, Maintenance management, Formulating maintenance strategy
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28482 (URN)2-s2.0-84959311548 (Scopus ID)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-06-24 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
2. Maintenance Decision Making, Supported by Computerized Maintenance Management System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maintenance Decision Making, Supported by Computerized Maintenance Management System
2016 (English)In: IEEE 2016 The Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium IEEE RAMS 2016, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper is written based on the need for Computerized Maintenance Management System’s (CMMS) decision analysis capability to achieve world class status in maintenance management. Investigations indicate that decision analysis capability is often missing in existing CMMSs and collected data in the systems are not completely utilized. How to utilize the gathered data to provide guidelines for maintenance engineers and managers to make proper maintenance decisions has always been a crucial question. In order to provide decision support capability, the aim of this paper is to provide and examine three different decision making techniques which can be linked to CMMS and add value to collected data. This research has been conducted within a global project in a large manufacturing site in Sweden to provide a new maintenance management system for the company. The data from the main studies were collected through document analysis complemented by discussions with maintenance engineers and managers at the case company to verify the data. Methods including a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique called TOPSIS, k-means clustering technique, and one decision making model borrowed from the literature were used. The results indicate the most appropriate maintenance decision for each of the selected machines/parts according to factors such as frequency of breakdowns, downtime, and cost of repairing. The paper concludes with a comparison of results obtained from the different decision making techniques and also a discussion on possible improvements needed to increase the capability of the maintenance decision making models.

Keyword
Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), Maintenance Decision Making, Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), Data Clustering
National Category
Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32776 (URN)10.1109/RAMS.2016.7448086 (DOI)2-s2.0-84968884451 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-0248-1 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 2016 The Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium IEEE RAMS 2016, 25 Jan 2016, Tucson, United States
Projects
Reducing maintenance-related wasteINNOFACTURE - innovative manufacturing development
Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-08-24 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
3. Cost Effectiveness of Condition Based Maintenance in Manufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost Effectiveness of Condition Based Maintenance in Manufacturing
2015 (English)In: Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, Article number 7105079Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a proposed guide for analysis of the costs and benefits of implementing Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) in manufacturing industry. The guide will be exemplified with results from a case study performed in a real CBM implementation in hardening and machining processes in a large manufacturing facility. The result indicates factors that ought to be taken into consideration in order to evaluate both the cost of implementing CBM and its benefits. These factors indicate the benefits of CBM mostly by reducing the losses due to damage in the production equipment, including capital loss, production loss, quality loss, environmental loss, safety loss etc. By analyzing the empirical data, the most potential savings by implementing CBM are presented as; reducing the probability of having maximal damage in the production equipment and, reducing production losses particularly in high production volumes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2015
Keyword
Condition based maintenance, Cost effectiveness, Manufacturing industry
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28481 (URN)10.1109/RAMS.2015.7105079 (DOI)000370748300023 ()978-1-4799-6702-5 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
61st Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, RAMS 2015; Innisbrook Golf and Spa Resort; Palm Harbor; United States; 26 January 2015 through 29 January 2015
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-06-24 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
4. Condition-based maintenance effectiveness from material efficiency perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condition-based maintenance effectiveness from material efficiency perspective
2017 (English)In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 20, no 1, 23-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the controversial gap between the environmental perspective and the cost perspective in a manufacturing context. The results of an empirical study on the heat treatment and phosphating processes performed by a manufacturing company indicate that implementing condition-based maintenance contributes not only to cost savings by preventing production losses and reducing equipment downtime but also to a more efficient use of resources by avoiding the generation of scraps and material wastage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United Kingdom: , 2017
Keyword
Condition-based maintenance, Material efficiency, Manufacturing
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35505 (URN)1363-7681 (ISBN)
Projects
INNOFACTURE - innovative manufacturing development
Available from: 2017-05-31 Created: 2017-05-31 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
5. CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES: INTRODUCING CURRENT INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE AND CHALLENGES
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES: INTRODUCING CURRENT INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE AND CHALLENGES
2013 (English)In: 22nd International Conference on Production Research, ICPR 2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an introductory review of CBM practice applied in manufacturing industry, focusing the technical constituents within condition monitoring. The empirical base for the study is a case study of two major manufacturing sites in Sweden, complemented with a brief benchmark of data from two reference manufacturing sites from France and Brazil. The data from the main studies were collected by interviews and document analysis. The result indicates that there is a wide range within current practice of applying CBM. The implementations are dependent on process type (machining, assembly or heat treatment) and product type. By analysing the empirical data, gaps and challenges for implementing CBM in industry are presented, primarily focusing condition monitoring within manufacturing industry. The paper concludes with a discussion on possible future trends and research areas, needed to increase the industrial use of CBM.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-23287 (URN)2-s2.0-84929376529 (Scopus ID)
Conference
22nd International Conference on Production Research, ICPR 2013; Parana; Brazil; 28 July 2013 through 1 August 2013
Projects
XPRESINNOFACTURE - innovative manufacturing development
Available from: 2013-12-14 Created: 2013-12-10 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
6. Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance in Manufacturing Industry – A Pilot Case Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance in Manufacturing Industry – A Pilot Case Study
2014 (English)In: 2014 IEEE Conference on Prognostics and Health Management (PHM), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, Article number 7036377- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a guide for implementation of Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) in a manufacturing industry, considering the technical constituents and organizational aspects when implementing CBM. The empirical base for the study is a case study from a major manufacturing site in Sweden. The data was collected during a pilot project to implement CBM at the case company. The purpose of the pilot study at the company was to implement online condition monitoring on some of the critical components in the hardening process. Hereby, two of the main online condition monitoring techniques namely vibration analysis and Shock Pulse Method (SPM) have been implemented and tested on electric motors to monitor bearing conditions. The paper presents the process of implementation and the elements included in this process. Some of the main elements in the implementation process are selection of the components to be monitored, techniques and technologies as well as installation of the technologies and finally how to analyze the results from the condition monitoring. The data from online condition monitoring on the electric motors, driving the furnace fans, are recorded and presented in the paper including breakdown data on two objects. This information is leading to useful and reliable knowledge for maintenance work to be cost effective and be able to increase the overall equipment availability (OEA). In addition to this, the result indicates to what extent advanced CBM practices are applicable in the hardening environment in the manufacturing company and it provides guidance for further research and development in this area. The paper concludes with a discussion on possible future trends and research areas, needed to increase the effective and efficient use of CBM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2014
Keyword
Condition based maintenance, Condition monitoring, Implementation
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28480 (URN)10.1109/ICPHM.2014.7036377 (DOI)2-s2.0-84929587482 (Scopus ID)9781479949427 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
2014 IEEE Conference on Prognostics and Health Management (PHM), 22-25 June, Cheney, USA
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-06-24 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
7. Online Vibration Condition Monitoring of Gas Circulation Fans in Hardening Process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online Vibration Condition Monitoring of Gas Circulation Fans in Hardening Process
(English)In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37127 (URN)
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
8. Condition Based Maintenance of Machine Tools: Vibration monitoring of spindle units
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condition Based Maintenance of Machine Tools: Vibration monitoring of spindle units
2017 (English)In: Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Machining systems (i.e., machine tools, cutting processes and their interaction) cannot produce accurate parts if performance degradation due to wear in their subsystems (e.g., feed-drive systems and spindle units) is not identified, monitored and controlled. Appropriate maintenance actions delay the possible deterioration and minimize/avoids the machining system stoppage time that leads to lower productivity and higher production cost. Moreover, measuring and monitoring machine tool condition has become increasingly important due to the introduction of agile production, increased accuracy requirements for products and customers' requirements for quality assurance. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) practices, such as vibration monitoring of machine tool spindle units, are therefore becoming a very attractive, but still challenging, method for companies operating high-value machines and components. CBM is being used to plan for maintenance action based on the condition of the machines and to prevent failures by solving the problems in advance as well as controlling the accuracy of the machining operations. By increasing the knowledge in this area, companies can save money through fewer acute breakdowns, reduction in inventory cost, reduction in repair times, and an increase in the robustness of the manufacturing processes leading to more predictable manufacturing. Hence, the CBM of machine tools ensures the basic conditions to deliver the right ability or capability of the right machine at the right time. One of the most common problems of rotating equipment such as spindles is the bearing condition (due to wear of the bearings). Failure of the bearings can cause major damage in a spindle. Vibration analysis is able to diagnose bearing failures by measuring the overall vibration of a spindle or, more precisely, by frequency analysis. Several factors should be taken into consideration to perform vibration monitoring on a machine tool's spindle. Some of these factors are as follows: the sensor type/sensitivity, number of sensors to be installed on the spindle in different directions, positioning of the vibration accelerometers, frequency range to be measured, resonance frequency, spindle rotational speed during the measurements, measurement condition, including the no-load condition with tool clamped or without a tool, measuring tools and technologies, automatic or manual run of measurement, measurement routine, warning limits, and data handling and analysis, among other factors. The aim of this paper is thus to address CBM and particularly the implementation in the manufacturing industries focusing on the use of vibration monitoring techniques to monitor the condition of the machine tools' spindle units. To conduct this study, a pilot project was followed in real time. The pilot project was performed at a manufacturing company in Sweden. The company's product is gearboxes for the automotive industry, with a production volume of approximately 135,000 units per year. CBM, by online and off-line condition monitoring, using vibration monitoring, has been implemented on different types of machine tools, including horizontal and vertical turning machines, multi-task milling machines and grinding machines.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37126 (URN)10.1109/RAM.2017.7889683 (DOI)978-1-5090-5284-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), Orlando, FL, USA, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved

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