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Condition Based Maintenance of Machine Tools: Vibration monitoring of spindle units
Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8729-2955
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
Western New England University, USA.
2017 (English)In: Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Machining systems (i.e., machine tools, cutting processes and their interaction) cannot produce accurate parts if performance degradation due to wear in their subsystems (e.g., feed-drive systems and spindle units) is not identified, monitored and controlled. Appropriate maintenance actions delay the possible deterioration and minimize/avoids the machining system stoppage time that leads to lower productivity and higher production cost. Moreover, measuring and monitoring machine tool condition has become increasingly important due to the introduction of agile production, increased accuracy requirements for products and customers' requirements for quality assurance. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) practices, such as vibration monitoring of machine tool spindle units, are therefore becoming a very attractive, but still challenging, method for companies operating high-value machines and components. CBM is being used to plan for maintenance action based on the condition of the machines and to prevent failures by solving the problems in advance as well as controlling the accuracy of the machining operations. By increasing the knowledge in this area, companies can save money through fewer acute breakdowns, reduction in inventory cost, reduction in repair times, and an increase in the robustness of the manufacturing processes leading to more predictable manufacturing. Hence, the CBM of machine tools ensures the basic conditions to deliver the right ability or capability of the right machine at the right time. One of the most common problems of rotating equipment such as spindles is the bearing condition (due to wear of the bearings). Failure of the bearings can cause major damage in a spindle. Vibration analysis is able to diagnose bearing failures by measuring the overall vibration of a spindle or, more precisely, by frequency analysis. Several factors should be taken into consideration to perform vibration monitoring on a machine tool's spindle. Some of these factors are as follows: the sensor type/sensitivity, number of sensors to be installed on the spindle in different directions, positioning of the vibration accelerometers, frequency range to be measured, resonance frequency, spindle rotational speed during the measurements, measurement condition, including the no-load condition with tool clamped or without a tool, measuring tools and technologies, automatic or manual run of measurement, measurement routine, warning limits, and data handling and analysis, among other factors. The aim of this paper is thus to address CBM and particularly the implementation in the manufacturing industries focusing on the use of vibration monitoring techniques to monitor the condition of the machine tools' spindle units. To conduct this study, a pilot project was followed in real time. The pilot project was performed at a manufacturing company in Sweden. The company's product is gearboxes for the automotive industry, with a production volume of approximately 135,000 units per year. CBM, by online and off-line condition monitoring, using vibration monitoring, has been implemented on different types of machine tools, including horizontal and vertical turning machines, multi-task milling machines and grinding machines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37126DOI: 10.1109/RAM.2017.7889683ISBN: 978-1-5090-5284-4 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-37126DiVA: diva2:1151225
Conference
Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), Orlando, FL, USA, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Condition Based Maintenance in the Manufacturing Industry: From Strategy to Implementation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condition Based Maintenance in the Manufacturing Industry: From Strategy to Implementation
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The growth of global competition has led to remarkable changes in the way manufacturing companies operate. These changes have affected maintenance and made its role even more crucial for business success. To remain competitive, manufacturing companies must continuously increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their production processes. Furthermore, the introduction of lean manufacturing has increased concerns regarding equipment availability and, therefore, the demand for effective maintenance. That maintenance is becoming more important for the manufacturing industry is evident in current discussions on national industrialization agendas. Digitalization, the industrial internet of things (IoT) and their connections to sustainable production are identified as key enablers for increasing the number of jobs in industry. Agendas such as “Industry 4.0” in Germany and “Smart Industry” in Sweden are promoting the connection of physical items such as sensors, devices and enterprise assets, both to each other and to the internet. Machines, systems, manufactured parts and humans will be closely interlinked to collaborative actions. Every physical object will formulate a cyber-physical system (CPS), and it will constantly be linked to its digital fingerprint and to intensive connection with the surrounding CPSs of its on-going processes.

That said, despite the increasing demand for reliable production equipment, few manufacturing companies pursue the development of strategic maintenance. Moreover, traditional maintenance strategies, such as corrective maintenance, are no longer sufficient to satisfy industrial needs, such as reducing failures and degradations of manufacturing systems to the greatest possible extent. The concept of maintenance has evolved over the last few decades from a corrective approach (maintenance actions after a failure) to a preventive approach (maintenance actions to prevent the failure). Strategies and concepts such as condition based maintenance (CBM) have thus evolved to support this ideal outcome. CBM is a set of maintenance actions based on the real-time or near real-time assessment of equipment conditions, which is obtained from embedded sensors and/or external tests and measurements, taken by portable equipment and/or subjective condition monitoring. CBM is increasingly recognized as the most efficient strategy for performing maintenance in a wide variety of industries. However, the practical implementation of advanced maintenance technologies, such as CBM, is relatively limited in the manufacturing industry.

Based on the discussion above, the objective of this research is to provide frameworks and guidelines to support the development and implementation of condition based maintenance in manufacturing companies.  This thesis will begin with an overall analysis of maintenance management to identify factors needed to strategically manage production maintenance. It will continue with a focus on CBM to illustrate how CBM could be valued in manufacturing companies and what the influencing factors to implement CBM are. The data were collected through case studies, mainly at one major automotive manufacturing site in Sweden. The bulk of the data was collected during a pilot CBM implementation project. Following the findings from these efforts, a formulated maintenance strategy is developed and presented, and factors to evaluate CBM cost effectiveness are assessed. These factors indicate the benefits of CBM, mostly with regard to reducing the probability of experiencing maximal damage to production equipment and reducing production losses, particularly at high production volumes. Furthermore, a process of CBM implementation is presented. Some of the main elements in the process are the selection of the components to be monitored, the techniques and technologies for condition monitoring and their installation and, finally, the analysis of the results of condition monitoring. Furthermore, CBM of machine tools is presented and discussed in this thesis, focusing on the use of vibration monitoring technique to monitor the condition of machine tool spindle units.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Mälardalen University, 2017
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 242
Keyword
Condition based maintenance; Condition monitoring; Manufacturing industry
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37130 (URN)978-91-7485-355-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-01, Raspen, Mälardalens högskola, Eskilstuna, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
INNOFACTURE - innovative manufacturing development
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved

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