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Framing the Gaze: (Audio-) Visual Design Intentions and Perceptual Considerations in Film Editing
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Dalarna University.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2006-4522
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The theme for this doctoral thesis focuses on how a film editor strives actively to perceptually frame and direct the film viewer’s gaze across film edits. The editor’s (audio-)visual intentions concerning the film viewing correspond to perceptual considerations that the editor makes during film editing.

Film editing in this thesis is considered as a kind of design work, foremost motivated by the possibilities of many new approaches, questions, and answers that a design perspective brings, stretching well beyond what previously adopted perspectives have done.

The research questions asked, as well as the presented results, are discussed with regard to design theory, established film production field knowledge, and perception research. Apart from considering audiovisual perception in a film editing context, film editing is also discussed as audiovisual design, and tentative implications for the role of perception in other kinds of design work are pointed out.

The results of my analyses are that there is reason to consider parts of film production as design work; that properties of an audiovisual material affect the creative space; that perceptual considerations are a significant part of the film editor’s treatment of the audiovisual material; that film viewers’ response to film edits varies with the shape of the edits; and that this variation is possible to link with the film editor’s intention regarding the edits, as well as to the degree of fulfillment of the intention.

I conclude that perceptual precision at the edit point is decisive for attaining a desired film-viewing decoding of a film sequence, and that when the perceptual precision is low, it is likely that the perceived continuity of the film fails.

The contribution of this doctoral thesis is that it drives the investigation of actual appliance of perception as audiovisual knowledge in film editing. Hence, it also adds to the more general discussion on perception as part of audiovisual thinking, and how audiovisual knowledge is formed.

The thesis contributes to the area of Innovation and Design through its mix of methods, since the main study considers the creation of new artefacts, the thinking going on during that process, as well as human responses to the artefacts. Conclusively, the thesis provides a thorough example of how a design research perspective can add to the understanding of film production, and its trades and activities.

Abstract [sv]

Temat för denna doktorsavhandling är hur det går till när en filmklippare aktivt strävar emot att perceptuellt fånga in och styra sin filmtittares blick över filmklipp. Klipparens (audio-)visuella intentioner med filmtittandet motsvaras av perceptuella överväganden som klipparen gör under klipparbetet.

Klipparbetet motiveras i denna avhandling som ett designarbete, främst för att ett designperspektiv på filmproduktion har möjligheter att bidra med många nya infallsvinklar, frågeställningar och svar, som sträcker sig bortom vad tidigare tillämpade perspektiv gör.

De forskningsfrågor som ställs, och de svar som presenteras, diskuteras sedan gentemot designteori, etablerad filmproduktionskunskap och perceptionsforskning. Utöver att audiovisuell perception beaktas inom filmklippningskontexten, diskuteras även filmklippning som audiovisuell design, och kopplingar görs till annat designarbete och möjliga implikationer för perceptionens roll i dessa sammanhang.

Data om klipparbetet har skapats via videoinspelade deltagande observation där även fortlöpande skärminspelningar skett, medan en filmklippare färdigställde en dokumentärfilmsekvens. Utifrån dessa inspelningar har sedan en elicitering med filmklipparen skett. På så vis har klipparens intentioner och möjliga beaktande av perceptuella faktorer fångats in.

Klipparens intentioner avseende filmtittare har sedan testats via ögonrörelsestudier där tittarnas ögondata samlats in medan de tittat på den skapade filmsekvensen.

Resultaten av mina analyser är att det finns skäl att betrakta delar av filmproduktion som designarbete, att audiovisuella materialegenskaper påverkar det kreativa utrymmet, att perceptuella hänsyn ingår som en väsentlig del av filmklipparens bearbetning av det audiovisuella materialet, att filmtittares respons på filmklipp varierar med hur klippen är utformade, samt att man kan koppla denna variation till filmklipparens intention med klippen, och graden av intentionens uppfyllelse.

Jag drar slutsatserna att perceptuell precision i klippunkten är avgörande för att uppnå en önskad avkodning av en filmsekvens för tittarens del, samt att när den perceptuella precisionen är låg är det troligt att den upplevda kontinuiteten hos filmen fallerar.

Doktorsavhandlingens bidrag är att den hjälper till att reda ut den faktiska tillämpningen av perceptionen som audiovisuell kunskap i filmklippning. Men den bidrar därmed även till en mera generell diskussion om perception som en del av audiovisuellt tänkande och formerandet av audiovisuell kunskap.

Avhandlingen bidrar till området Innovation och Design genom sin blandning av metoder, eftersom huvudstudien rör skapandet av nya artefakter och tänkande som pågår inom denna process, liksom mänsklig respons på dessa artefakter. Slutligen bidrar avhandlingen med ett genomgripande exempel på hur ett designforskningsperspektiv kan bidra till att förstå delar av filmproduktion, och de yrken och aktiviteter som sker där.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2017.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 235
Keyword [en]
moving image editing, film production, TV production, audiovisual design, audiovisual perception
Keyword [sv]
filmklippning, videoredigering, filmproduktion, TV-produktion, audiovisuell design, audiovisuell perception
National Category
Design
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35769ISBN: 978-91-7485-340-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-35769DiVA: diva2:1110031
Public defence
2017-09-15, Raspen, Mälardalens högskola, Eskilstuna, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-06-15 Created: 2017-06-15 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Visual Intention in Moving Image Editing and Eye-tracking Methodology: An exploratory study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual Intention in Moving Image Editing and Eye-tracking Methodology: An exploratory study
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualisation 2010 / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Stefan Bertschi, Remo Burkhard, John Counsell, Mohammad Dastbaz, Martin Eppler, Camilla Forsell, Georges Grinstein, Jimmy Johansson, Mikael Jern, Farzad Khosrowshahi, Francis T. Marchese, Carsten Maple, Richard Laing, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trut, 2010, 381-387 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Moving images production teams’ skills in directing the visual perception of viewers have been confirmed lately through eye-tracking methodology. One interest lies in explaining the use of different techniques by the production team for its realization of visual intentions. These intentions are however many in most moving images. This paper undertakes the development of a method for grasping the film or video editors’ intentions with the editing of moving images, and has been carried out as an exploratory study. The method suggested considers conventions of the trade, observational study with running screen-dump and proximate interviews with editors on specific edits, as well as the testing of moving image sequences where the intention of each edit point is known. The test is conducted on viewers, with the use of eye-tracking techniques. The findings are that the method should be useful in distinguishing between when the editors’ grip on the audience is firm, and when it is rather vague. But the method also suggests new aspects of understanding the viewers’ gazes when watching moving images.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13139 (URN)10.1109/IV.2010.59 (DOI)2-s2.0-78449303355 (ScopusID)978-076954165-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 14th International Conference Information Visualisation, IV 2010; London; United Kingdom; 26 July 2010 through 29 July 2010
Available from: 2011-10-13 Created: 2011-10-13 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
2. A Film Editor’s Visual Intentions and Use of Perceptual Phenomena in Designing Film Edits: An Observational Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Film Editor’s Visual Intentions and Use of Perceptual Phenomena in Designing Film Edits: An Observational Study
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Visual Design, ISSN 2325-1581, Vol. 11, no 3, 1-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates the role of perception in film editing, considered as audiovisual design work. The study is an observation of a film editor editing a documentary film sequence, where the perceptual phenomena at stake at edit points are scrutinized, with reference to perception theory. The results show that the film editor’s design goal is to achieve perceptual precision for each edit, either for continuity or for discontinuity, accordingly. The more perceptual phenomena per edit, the more time and the more processing the editor has to spend on the edit until satisfied with the result. This knowledge is of importance to inexperienced film editors in order to make the editing process faster and more precise and thus shorten production time. In the wider design context, other design activities are indicated to find inspiration for future research in this study, regarding perceptual phenomena and gaze framing during design processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Common Ground Publishing, 2017
National Category
Design Studies on Film
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35641 (URN)10.18848/2325-1581/CGP/v11i03/1-17 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
3. Editorial intentions and viewer perceptions: An audiovisual methodology for studying film editing and eye movements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial intentions and viewer perceptions: An audiovisual methodology for studying film editing and eye movements
2016 (English)In: Visual Methodologies, ISSN 2040-5456, Vol. 4, no 2, 13-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents an audio-visual methodology, VOSMET, designed to address activities of the craft of film editing, with a focus on the use of perception, and its implications. The methodology employs 13 different visual aspects and five different audio aspects, starting with video-recording observations of an editor, and ending with the analysis of eye-tracking data from film viewers. Craft research needs methodologies that address craft activities and cognitive approaches. Design practices share a similar need for reaching deeper understanding. It is neither established how film editors achieve perceptual precision in continuity editing in practice. The VOSMET methodology simultaneously captures bodily actions, utterances, software events, and keystrokes, along with the audiovisual material under processing, and uses graphics to distinguish between what takes place. The methodology also contributes by grasping what a film editor attends to, how this attention functions, as well as how perceptual factors are handled by the film editor. Finally, the methodology can evaluate editorial intentions against film viewer perceptions.

Keyword
documentary film editing; screen-recording video; video-graphic coding; eye tracking; perceptual precision, dokumentärfilmklippning, skärmdumpsvideo, video-grafisk kodning, ögonrörelsestudier, perceptuell precision
National Category
Design Other Humanities not elsewhere specified Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35644 (URN)
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
4. Creative Space in Contemporary Swedish Moving Image Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creative Space in Contemporary Swedish Moving Image Production
2012 (English)In: Journal of Integrated Design & Process Science, ISSN 1092-0617, Vol. 16, no 4, 55-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Production of moving images is turning completely digital. This leads to new possibilities and new constraints for creativity within film and TV production chains.

This paper describes professionals’ current comprehension of the consequences of the shift from celluloid to digital technologies, within the Swedish Moving Image Industry. New technologies bring new workflows, new design processes and new constraints.

We aim to illuminate factors that affect design creativity in digital moving image production, by addressing questions about production related responses to the digital turn as well as the affects of such responses on creativity.

Inspired by Ingar Brinck’s creativity theories (1999, 2007) we view aesthetic problem solving as a cognitive process and suggest creative spaces to be the critical phenomenon to manage. We also use organization theories, particularly the work of Katherine Miller (2011) to explain why creativity ought to be a primary management concern.

The empirical material used is semi-structured interviews with management personnel in Swedish moving image production companies. Outcomes include that the variety of digital formats available today is hard for crafts people to overview. This has brought costly workflow constraints that largely limit creativity.

We suggest a pre-production file format check-list as a tool to support design management.

Keyword
technological Shift, file formats, workflow, creativity, design management
National Category
Design Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14085 (URN)10.3233/jid-2012-0003 (DOI)2-s2.0-84871213299 (ScopusID)
Projects
New Design Processes in the Audiovisual Industry
Available from: 2012-01-27 Created: 2012-01-27 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
5. Workflow Management in Design Processes in Professional Audiovisual Production and Design Management Support
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workflow Management in Design Processes in Professional Audiovisual Production and Design Management Support
2012 (English)In: / [ed] Dr. Wolfgang Reisig, Dr. Sang Suh, Society for Design and Process Science , 2012Conference paper, Presentation (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with the need for design management support within the Audiovisual Industry, due to the increasing variety of video file formats and codecs available to professionals. The amount of video file formats and codecs are referred to as ‘the file format jungle’ by moving image professionals, and needs to be navigated by managerial staff that are not electronic engineers or technicians, but responsible for audio-visual design work within film and TV production.

We have evaluated a prototype for a design management support tool that compares file formats and codecs for different production tools, with the help of Swedish moving image industry producers. The core principals of the support tool prototype are found to cohere with the needs for design management support within film and TV production, and the tool is therefore an option for commercial development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society for Design and Process Science, 2012
Keyword
Creativity, Design Management Support, Audiovisual Design, Film/TV Production
National Category
Design Media Engineering
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-16542 (URN)
Conference
SPDS-2012 The Technology of Complex Systems
Projects
New Design Processes in the Audiovisual Indusrty
Available from: 2012-12-14 Created: 2012-12-14 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
6. Film and TV production as audiovisual design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Film and TV production as audiovisual design
(English)In: The Design CollectionArticle in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Common Ground Publishing
National Category
Studies on Film Design Media Studies
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35638 (URN)
Note

http://ijg.cgpublisher.com/ lista över "The Design Collection" tidskrifter

Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
7. EFFECTS OF CONTINUITY OR DISCONTINUITY IN ACTUAL FILM EDITING
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EFFECTS OF CONTINUITY OR DISCONTINUITY IN ACTUAL FILM EDITING
(English)In: Empirical Studies of the Arts, ISSN 0276-2374, E-ISSN 1541-4493Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Studies on Film Design
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35779 (URN)
Note

Artikeln har granskats en omgång och journalen anser att ämnet faller inom deras intresseområde.

The article has been reviewed once, and the journal acknowledges that the topic of the article falls within the journal's scope .

Available from: 2017-06-14 Created: 2017-06-14 Last updated: 2017-06-16Bibliographically approved

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  • apa
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  • text
  • asciidoc
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