mdh.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Extractive Probe Sampling for Biomass and Combustion Characterization
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. (Future Energy Center)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5341-3656
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biomass is characterized by highly variable properties. It can be converted to more valuable energy forms and products through a variety of conversion processes. This thesis focuses on addressing several important issues related to combustion and pulping.

Experimental investigations were carried out on a biomass-fired industrial fluidized-bed boiler. The observed combustion asymmetry was explained by an imbalance in the fuel feed. Increased levels of carbon monoxide were detected close to boiler walls which contribute significantly to the risk of wall corrosion.

Moreover, extensive literature analysis showed that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has a great potential to provide property information for heterogeneous feedstocks or products, and to directly monitor processes producing/processing biofuels in real-time. The developed NIRS-based models were able to predict characteristics such as heating value, ash content and glass content. A study focusing on the influence of different spectra acquisition parameters on lignin quantification was carried out. Spectral data acquired on moving woodchips were found to increase the representativeness of the spectral measurements leading to improvements in model performance.

The present thesis demonstrates the potential of developing NIRS-based soft-sensors for characterization of biomass properties. The on-line installation of such sensors in an industrial setting can enable feed-forward process control, diagnostics and optimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2017.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 224
National Category
Energy Systems Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35041ISBN: 978-91-7485-317-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-35041DiVA: diva2:1082869
Public defence
2017-04-26, Pi, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-03-20 Created: 2017-03-19 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experimental investigation of part load operation of a full-scale biomass-fired fluidized bed boiler
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation of part load operation of a full-scale biomass-fired fluidized bed boiler
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35046 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-21 Created: 2017-03-21 Last updated: 2017-03-25Bibliographically approved
2. The experimental study of full-scale biomass-fired bubbling fluidized bed boiler
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The experimental study of full-scale biomass-fired bubbling fluidized bed boiler
2014 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, 643-647 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents experimental data concerning combustion characteristics of full-scale biomass-fired bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) steam boiler with a thermal output of 31 MW. The purpose of the experimental measurements is to show how the values of selected combustion parameters vary in reality depending on measurement position. Experimentation involves specifically a determination of combustion gas temperature and concentration of gas species i.e. O2, CO2, CO and NOX at different positions in the furnace and the flue gas trains. Character of results from the furnace indicates the intermediate stage of thermochemical reactions. Increased levels of CO close to the wall have been found, this may be indicating reducing atmosphere and thereby increased corrosion risk. Results from flue gas trains demonstrate that behavior there is related to the fluid dynamics and heat transfer, the temperature is too low for further combustion reactions. Results show great variations among measured values of all measurands depending on a distance along the line from the wall to the center of the boiler. The measurements from permanently installed fixed sensors are not giving value representing average conditions, but overall profiles can be correlated to online measurements from fixed sensors.

Keyword
Biomass combustion; steam boiler; fluidized bed; temperature measurements; flue gas concentration measurements.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering; Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26844 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.1188 (DOI)000375936100148 ()2-s2.0-84922364736 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 6th International Conference on Applied Energy – ICAE2014, Taipei May 30 - June 2 2014
Available from: 2014-12-05 Created: 2014-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. The influence of different parameters on biomass gasification in circulating fluidized bed gasifiers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of different parameters on biomass gasification in circulating fluidized bed gasifiers
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 126, 110-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The mechanism of biomass gasification has been studied for decades. However, for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifiers, the impacts of different parameters on the gas quality and gasifiers performance have still not been fully investigated. In this paper, different CFB gasifiers have been analyzed by multivariate analysis statistical tools to identify the hidden interrelation between operating parameters and product gas quality, the most influencing input parameters and the optimum points for operation. The results show that equivalence ratio (ER), bed material, temperature, particle size and carbon content of the biomass are the input parameters influencing the output of the gasifier the most. Investigating among the input parameters with opposite impact on product gas quality, cases with optimal gas quality can result in high tar yield and low carbon conversion while low tar yield and high carbon conversion can result in product gas with low quality. However using Olivine as the bed material and setting ER value around 0.3, steam to biomass ratio to 0.7 and using biomass with 3 mm particle size and 9 wt% moisture content can result in optimal product gas with low tar yield.

National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32432 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2016.07.031 (DOI)000385326400011 ()2-s2.0-84980563382 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-04 Created: 2016-08-04 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
4. Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in biomass energy conversion processes: A review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in biomass energy conversion processes: A review
2017 (English)In: Applied spectroscopy reviews (Softcover ed.), ISSN 0570-4928, E-ISSN 1520-569X, Vol. 52, no 8, 675-728 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass used in energy conversion processes is typically characterized by high variability, making its utilization challenging. Therefore, there is a need for a fast and non-destructive method to determine feedstock/product properties and directly monitor process reactors. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique together with advanced data analysis methods offers a possible solution. This review focuses on the introduction of the NIRS method and its recent applications to physical, thermochemical, biochemical and physiochemical biomass conversion processes represented mainly by pelleting, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, as well as biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel production. NIRS has been proven to be a reliable and inexpensive method with a great potential for use in process optimization, advanced control, or product quality assurance.

Keyword
Biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biomass, chemometrics, near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, near infrared, NIR, instrumentation
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Energy Systems Chemical Process Engineering Bioenergy Bioprocess Technology
Research subject
Biotechnology/Chemical Engineering; Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-34992 (URN)10.1080/05704928.2017.1289471 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029956089 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-03 Last updated: 2017-10-05Bibliographically approved
5. Effect of wood chip moving velocity on NIR spectra acquisition and model calibration for lignin quantification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of wood chip moving velocity on NIR spectra acquisition and model calibration for lignin quantification
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35047 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-21 Created: 2017-03-21 Last updated: 2017-03-25Bibliographically approved
6. Utilization of Near Infrared (NIR) Spectrometry for Detection of Glass in the Waste-based Fuel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilization of Near Infrared (NIR) Spectrometry for Detection of Glass in the Waste-based Fuel
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, 734-741 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the results of experimental measurements and multivariate statistical modeling concerning detection of soda-lime glass using near infrared (NIR) spectrometry technique. The purpose is to test if the glass is quantitatively detectable in a waste-based material and to assess what method of spectral data pretreatment is the most suitable in order to develop prediction models. The experiments were performed on six test samples containing a specific amount of glass distributed in background material. Pretreatment methods such as normalization and first and second derivatives were applied on the acquired absorbance spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in order to describe the relationship between pretreated data and the amount of glass in the test samples. Subsequently, principal component regression (PCR) was utilized for the development of prediction models. The results from the models show strong correlation between the pretreated data and the glass content. The most promising results were obtained from the model based on 1st derivative pretreatment when only absorbance spectral data from selected wavelengths are included. 

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29321 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.502 (DOI)000361030001029 ()2-s2.0-84947065808 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES
Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
7. Fast Determination of Fuel Properties in Solid Biofuel Mixtures by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast Determination of Fuel Properties in Solid Biofuel Mixtures by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, 1309-1317 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the characterization of highly variable biofuel properties such as moisture content, ash content and higher heating value by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Experiments were performed on different biofuel sample mixtures consisting of stem wood chips, forest residue chips, bark, sawdust, and peat. NIR scans were performed using a Fourier transform NIR instrument, and reference values were obtained according to standardized laboratory methods. Spectral data were pre-processed by Multiplicative scatter correction correcting light scattering and change in a path length for each sample. Multivariate calibration was carried out employing Partial least squares regression while absorbance values from full NIR spectral range (12,000–4000 cm-1), and reference values were used as inputs. It was demonstrated that different solid biofuel properties can be measured by means of NIR spectroscopy. The accuracy of the models is satisfactory for industrial implementation towards improved process control. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Ash content; biofuels; higher heating value, moisture content, Near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS.
National Category
Energy Systems Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering; Biotechnology/Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33988 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.476 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020707357 (Scopus ID)
Conference
8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2016; Beijing; China; 8 October 2016 through 11 October 2016
Available from: 2016-11-27 Created: 2016-11-27 Last updated: 2017-06-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(9172 kB)54 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT03.pdfFile size 9172 kBChecksum SHA-512
ff87f0683db2fe48b1870814f14e5c8f242261f414a98d66500e95c3601dd129047b57cad3faec570c301c18cd4617f49f0077292e91e378ed4c11904c3edb3f
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Skvaril, Jan
By organisation
Future Energy Center
Energy SystemsChemical Process Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 71 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 326 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf