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Validation of Vertical Bifacial Agrivoltaic and Other Systems Modelling: Effect of Dynamic Albedo on Irradiance and Power Output Estimations
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4075-8855
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2225-029X
Mälardalen University.
Mälardalen University.
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In agrivoltaic systems combining solar photovoltaic and agricultural activities, ground albedo is mainly characterized by the crop and its seasonal variations. This study examines the effects of using fixed, satellite-derived, and hourly measured albedo on the performance of a vertical bifacial system and a 1-axis tracking system using a bifacial photovoltaic model (AgriOptiCE®). The model is developed with Matlab® and partially based on the open-source package pvlib. AgriOptiCE® is firstly validated by comparing estimated front and rear irradiances with on-site measurements for specific periods from a 1-axis tracker site in Golden, USA and a vertical agrivoltaic system in Västerås, Sweden. Furthermore, photovoltaic system power output estimations using AgriOptiCE® are also validated for the vertical agrivoltaic system and the conventional ground-mounted fixed-tilt system at the same location. The validations demonstrate the high accuracy of the proposed model in estimating front and rear irradiances and power output, obtaining R2 > 0.85 for all the studied cases. The study results indicate that measured albedo provides the highest accuracy, while satellite- derived albedo has poorer results due to the broader spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. Fixed albedo is not recommended for yearly assessment of bifacial PV systems because it cannot account for snow events and daily variations, resulting in lower overall accuracy. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2023.
Keywords [en]
Agrivoltaics, Albedo, Agri-OptiCE, Modelling and Simulation, Bifacial PV
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66406OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-66406DiVA, id: diva2:1850251
Conference
The World Conference AgriVoltaics, 2023 April 12-14 Daegu, South Korea & Online
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 52693-1
Note

Accepted manuscript

Available from: 2024-04-10 Created: 2024-04-10 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Solar Irradiance Assessment in Agrivoltaic Systems: Understanding Photosynthetically Active Radiation Separation Models and Dynamic Crop Albedo Effect in Agrivoltaic Systems Modelling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar Irradiance Assessment in Agrivoltaic Systems: Understanding Photosynthetically Active Radiation Separation Models and Dynamic Crop Albedo Effect in Agrivoltaic Systems Modelling
2024 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Agrivoltaics, also referred as agrivoltaic systems, present an appealing solution, owing to its dual land use and integrated food-energy system, for the shift to renewable energy. However, it raises concerns about the complex synergies and trade-offs between crop growth and solar photovoltaic panels. Crops grown under open-field traditional agriculture receive uniformly distributed Sun irradiance, whereas agrivoltaics introduces variable shadowing, which interferes with the homogeneity of light collected by crops. 

Agrivoltaics emphasises the significance of the diffuse irradiance component during shading conditions when direct irradiance is blocked by solar panels. Decomposition models are essential for estimating the diffuse light component from the global one. This thesis conducts a benchmarking investigation of state-of-the-art solar irradiance decomposition models to identify the most suitable ones for decomposing photosynthetically active radiation in specific Swedish sites. The results lead to a novel separation model that outperforms the top models revealed in the benchmarking analysis. Various scenarios common in agrivoltaic sites are used to test the applicability of the model and guide model selection based on available data. 

In agrivoltaic systems, where solar panels disrupt incoming sunlight to crops, the crop reflectivity or albedo influences solar panels, particularly those with bifacial solar cells. This thesis further investigates how ground-reflected irradiance components affect the front and rear sides of bifacial system designs under varied ground albedo circumstances. Using Agri-OptiCE®, this research examines how albedo data quality affects bifacial systems. The findings contribute to improve the precision of plane-of-array irradiance and power output estimations, hence aiding the practical implementation of agrivoltaic systems across the globe. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2024
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 359
Keywords
Agrivoltaics, Albedo, Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Decomposition Model, Solar Energy
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66407 (URN)978-91-7485-645-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2024-05-15, Paros, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 52693-1
Available from: 2024-04-17 Created: 2024-04-10 Last updated: 2024-04-24Bibliographically approved

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Ma Lu, SilviaZainali, SebastianStridh, BengtAvelin, AndersCampana, Pietro Elia

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