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Impact of the Regulation Strategy on the Transient Behavior of a Brayton Heat Pump
Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, 56122, Italy.
Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, 56122, Italy.
Institute of Low-Carbon Industrial Processes, German Aerospace Center (DLR), 03046 Cottbus, Germany.
Institute of Low-Carbon Industrial Processes, German Aerospace Center (DLR), 03046 Cottbus, Germany.
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2024 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 17, no 5, article id 1020Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-temperature heat pumps are a key technology for enabling the complete integration of renewables into the power grid. Although these systems may come with several variants, Brayton heat pumps are gaining more and more interest because of the higher heat sink temperatures and the potential to leverage already existing components in the industry. Because these systems utilize renewable electricity to supply high-temperature heat, they are particularly suited for industry or energy storage applications, thus prompting the development of various demonstration plants to evaluate their performance and flexibility. Adapting to varying load conditions and swiftly responding to load adjustments represent crucial aspects for advancing such systems. In this context, this study delves into assessing the transient capabilities of Brayton heat pumps during thermal load management. A transient model of an emerging prototype is presented, comprising thermal and volume dynamics of the components. Furthermore, two reference scenarios are examined to assess the transient performance of the system, namely a thermal load alteration due to an abrupt change in the desired heat sink temperature and, secondly, to a sudden variation in the sink mass flow rate. Finally, two control methodologies—motor/compressor speed variation and fluid inventory control—are analyzed in the latter scenario, and a comparative analysis of their effectiveness is discussed. Results indicate that varying the compressor speed allows for a response time in the 8–20 min range for heat sink temperature regulation (first scenario). However, the regulation time is conditioned by the maximum thermal stress sustained by the heat exchangers. In the latter scenario, regulating the compressor speed shows a faster response time than the inventory control (2–5 min vs. 15 min). However, the inventory approach provides higher COPs in part-load conditions and better stability during the transient phase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) , 2024. Vol. 17, no 5, article id 1020
Keywords [en]
Brayton heat pump, control system, dynamic modeling, high-temperature heat pump, transient simulation, Electric energy storage, Electric loads, Heat pump systems, High temperature applications, Inventory control, Pumps, Thermal load, Brayton, Dynamics models, Heat pumps, Heat sink temperature, High temperature heat pump, Integration of renewables, Key technologies, Transient behavior, Heat storage
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66281DOI: 10.3390/en17051020ISI: 001182671500001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85187468466OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-66281DiVA, id: diva2:1845840
Note

Article; Export Date: 20 March 2024; Cited By: 0; Correspondence Address: M. Pettinari; Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, 56122, Italy; email: matteo.pettinari@phd.unipi.it; L. Ferrari; Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, 56122, Italy; email: lorenzo.ferrari@unipi.it

Available from: 2024-03-20 Created: 2024-03-20 Last updated: 2024-03-27Bibliographically approved

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