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Lightweight Persistent Storage for Industrial Applications
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Clouds are large computer centers that offer remote access to computing and storage resources, making them popular for business and web applications. They are now being considered for use in safety-critical applications such as factories, but lack sufficient time predictability, which makes it challenging to use them in these time-sensitive applications. To overcome this limitation, an intermediate layer, the fog layer, is introduced to provide computational resources closer to the network edge. However, this new computing paradigm faces its own challenges in resource management, scalability, and reliability due to resource constrained nodes. Lightweight virtualization technologies like containerization can solve the performance-reliability dichotomy in fog computing and provide built-in fault tolerance mechanisms. By studying a robotic use-case, we realized the critical importance of persistent data storage for stateful applications, such as many control applications. However, container-based solutions lack fault-tolerant persistent storage. In this thesis, we identify new challenges associated with leveraging container-based architectures, particularly the importance of persistent storage for stateful applications. We investigate the design possibilities for persistent fault-tolerant storage and propose a solution adapted to container-based fog architectures and tailored for stateful applications. The solution provides scalability, auto recovery, and re-integration after failures at application and node levels. Key elements are a replicated data structure and a storage container, using a consensus protocol for distributed data consistency and fault tolerance in case of node failures. The fault tolerance and consistency of the solution are modeled and verified, and its timing requirements evaluated. We use simulation to evaluate the timing performance of our solution in larger set-ups. The results of our study show that although adding a consistency protocol introduces a timing overhead, the solution still meets timing requirements for the studied use-case even in presence of a set of relevant faults. By leveraging a four-dimensional approach, we also conduct a comparative analysis of our solution with other approaches from various perspectives, indicating that our solution can be applied in a broader context than initially intended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2023.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 394
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64555ISBN: 978-91-7485-617-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-64555DiVA, id: diva2:1805906
Public defence
2023-12-11, Milos, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-10-23 Created: 2023-10-19 Last updated: 2023-11-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Fault-tolerant Permanent Storage for Container-based Fog Architectures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fault-tolerant Permanent Storage for Container-based Fog Architectures
2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2021 22nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2021, p. 722-729Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Container-based architectures are widely used for cloud computing and can have an important role in the implementation of fog computing infrastructures. However, there are some crucial dependability aspects that must be addressed to make containerization suitable for critical fog applications, e.g., in automation and robotics. This paper discusses challenges in applying containerization at the fog layer and focuses on one of those challenges: provision of fault-tolerant permanent storage. The paper also presents a container-based fog architecture utilizing so-called storage containers, which combine built-in fault-tolerance mechanisms of containers with a distributed consensus protocol to achieve data consistency.

Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ISSN 2643-2978
Keywords
Kubernetes, ROS, Container, Orchestration, Cloud, Fog, Dependability, Fault-tolerance, Container Storage
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-53682 (URN)10.1109/ICIT46573.2021.9453473 (DOI)000687856000112 ()2-s2.0-85112532174 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2021 22ND IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY (ICIT)
Available from: 2021-03-22 Created: 2021-03-22 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
2. Using UPPAAL to Verify Recovery in a Fault-tolerant Mechanism Providing Persistent State at the Edge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using UPPAAL to Verify Recovery in a Fault-tolerant Mechanism Providing Persistent State at the Edge
2021 (English)In: 26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2021, Västerås: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In our previous work we proposed a fault-tolerant persistent storage for container-based fog architecture. We leveraged the use of containerization to provide storage as a containerized application working along with other containers. As a fault-tolerance mechanism we introduced a replicated data structure and to solve consistency issue between the replicas distributed in the cluster of nodes, we used the RAFT consensus protocol. In this paper, we verify our proposed solution using the UPPAAL model checker. We explain how our solution is modeled in UPPAAL and present a formal verification of key properties related to persistent storage and data consistency between nodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021
National Category
Computer Sciences Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-55677 (URN)10.1109/ETFA45728.2021.9613178 (DOI)000766992600015 ()2-s2.0-85122923987 (Scopus ID)9781728129891 (ISBN)
Conference
26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2021Virtual, Vasteras7 September 2021 through 10 September 2021
Available from: 2021-08-30 Created: 2021-08-30 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
3. Verifying the timing of a persistent storage for stateful fog applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verifying the timing of a persistent storage for stateful fog applications
2022 (English)In: 6th International Conference on Computer, Software and Modeling (ICCSM), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we analyze the failure semantics of a persistent fault-tolerant storage solution for stateful fog applications. This storage system is a container-based solution that provides data availability and consistency in a distributed container-based fog architecture. We evaluate the behavior of this storage system with a formal model that includes all the important time parameters and temporal aspects of the solution. This allows us to verify data consistency and other fault-tolerance properties of our system model while considering application startup latency, together with synchronization intervals and delays. We prove that the solution can tolerate failures at application, node, communication and storage level with the ability to automatically recover from failures and provides data consistency within the synchronization delay defined as t time units, which we can calculate for a given system configuration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
Containers; Digital storage; Fog; Fog computing; Semantics; Timing circuits, Data availability; Data consistency; Failure semantics; Fault-tolerant; Formal modeling; Persistent storage; Statefulness; Storage solutions; Storage systems; Time parameter, Fault tolerance
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61645 (URN)10.1109/ICCSM57214.2022.00008 (DOI)2-s2.0-85146302832 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2022 6th International Conference on Computer, Software and Modeling (ICCSM) 21-23 July 2022
Available from: 2023-01-25 Created: 2023-01-25 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
4. Analyzing the performance of persistent storage for fault-tolerant stateful fog applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing the performance of persistent storage for fault-tolerant stateful fog applications
2023 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 144, article id 103004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we analyze the scalability and performance of a persistent, fault-tolerant storage approach that provides data availability and consistency in a distributed container-based architecture with intended use in industrial control applications. We use simulation to evaluate the performance of this storage system in terms of scalability and failures. As the industrial applications considered have timing constraints, the simulation results show that for certain failure patterns, it is possible to determine whether the storage solution can meet critical deadlines. The presented approach is applicable for evaluating timing constraints also of other container-based critical applications that require persistent storage.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64563 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2023.103004 (DOI)001091755600001 ()2-s2.0-85173500699 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020Vinnova, 2018-02437
Available from: 2023-10-20 Created: 2023-10-20 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
5. Storage placement in continuum computing for a robotic application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Storage placement in continuum computing for a robotic application
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper analyzes the timing performance of a persistent storage designed for distributed containerbased architectures in industrial control applications. The storage ensures data availability andconsistency while accommodating faults. The analysis considers four aspects: 1. placement strategy,2. design options, 3. data size, and 4. evaluation under faulty conditions. Experimental results considering the timing constraints in industrial applications indicate that the storage solution can meet criticaldeadlines, particularly under specific failure patterns. Moreover, this evaluation method is applicablefor assessing other container-based critical applications with timing constraints that require persistentstorage. Further comparison results reveal that, while the method may underperform current centralized solutions under fault-free conditions, it outperforms the centralized solutions in failure scenarios

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64566 (URN)
Available from: 2023-10-20 Created: 2023-10-20 Last updated: 2023-11-07Bibliographically approved

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Bakhshi, Zeinab

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