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Using Outage Probability to Tailor Communication Protocols Suitable for Cyber-Physical Systems Operating in Confined Areas
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8109-1685
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Some types of Cyber-Physical System (CPS) applications found within e.g., quarrying, mining, harbors, and construction sites, operate within confined areas. To guarantee that communications between nodes in such systems operate smoothly, the adopted wireless communication protocols must meet stringent requirements, even in the presence of interference and/or jamming. This thesis work targets finding performance metrics suitable for designing and evaluating wireless networks when used for CPSs in confined areas. Given the shortage of spectrum and the increased risk of cyber-attacks experienced lately, the protocols must also be adjusted to perform well when subject to strong interference and/or adversary jamming. Hence, to be useful in practice, metrics that can be recalculated during runtime are needed, such that they can be used not only to propose, select and tailor the communication protocols to fulfill the stringent CPS requirements but also to optimize their performance during runtime. The literature survey conducted in this thesis shows that a reliability metric in terms of thresholding the so-called outage probability is valuable for all design steps as well as for continuously optimizing the communications. However, since the outage probability is defined as the probability that an individual wireless link will experience outage, it does not address the reliability of the entire network within the confined area. The thesis work shows that it is possible to consider overall outage probabilities and evaluates the probability of outage for each individual packet from a specific source node to a final destination, including all possible links in the network. This way, it is possible to consider the overall outage for all packets within the network in the confined area. Outage probability measures are defined for different system models and closed-form expressions for the outage are derived for the Individual Outage Probability (IOP), the Overall Outage Probability (OOP), the IOP for one packet (IOPP), and the OOP for all packets (OOPP), with and without the presence of attackers and/or strong interference. These reliability metrics can be adopted to analyze the effects of a wide range of parameters such as power allocation, node positions, the use of relay nodes or retransmissions, etc. on the individual link, individual source packet, and overall network reliability. The analysis thereby makes it possible to provide a set of general guidelines for tailoring the protocols and enhance the communication reliability of all legitimate nodes in the CPS. Having the closed-form expressions readily available also enables recalculating and adjusting parameters faster in order to find the best solution to improve the communication reliability during runtime. The thesis work demonstrates how outage probability can be used to enhance system performance in several example scenarios, including a multiple access scheme, pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA), mobile access points and/or relay nodes. The outage analysis can thereby be applied to an existing CPS application to enhance reliability, robustness, and flexibility while maintaining a low delay.

Abstract [sv]

Vissa typer av trådlösa närverk kopplar samman maskiner och människor som samarbetar inom ett begränsat område, exempelvis ett stenbrott, en gruva, en hamn eller en byggarbetsplats. För att garantera att kommunikationen mellan olika noder i sådana system fungerar smidigt, måste de trådlösa kommunikationsprotokollen leva upp till stränga krav, även då olika typer av störningar inträffar. Arbetet i den här doktorsavhandlingen syftar till att hitta prestandamått som är lämpliga både för att designa och för att utvärdera trådlösa nätverk som används för att koppla samman olika aktörer som samarbetar inom avgränsade områden. Med tanke på bristen på spektrum och den ökade risken för cyberattacker som uppmärksammats den senaste tiden, behöver kommunikationsprotokollen också anpassas för att prestera bra när de utsätts för kraftiga störningar och/eller cyberattacker. För att vara användbara i praktiken krävs mått som kan utvärderas under körning, så att de inte bara kan användas för att utveckla, välja eller skräddarsy kommunikationsprotokollen, utan också för att optimera deras prestanda direkt under körning.Litteraturundersökningen som genomförts i denna avhandling visar att ett tillförlitlighetsmått som använder tröskelvärden för den så kallade” outage probability” (sannolikheten för avbrott i den trådlösa kommunikationen) är värdefullt för att utveckla såväl som för att kontinuerligt optimera kommunikationsprotokoll. Problemet är att sannolikheten för avbrott definieras som sannolikheten att en enskild trådlös länk kommer att drabbas av ett avbrott. Det inbegriper alltså inte tillförlitligheten för hela nätverket inom det begränsade området. Avhandlingen visar att det är möjligt att formulera övergripande prestandamått som kan användas för att utvärdera sannolikheten för avbrott för varje enskilt paket från en specifik källa till en specifik slutdestination även då paketet tillåts använda alla tillgängliga länkar i nätverket. På så sätt är det möjligt att utvärdera den totala sannolikheten för avbrott i kommunikationen för alla paket som ska kommuniceras inom hela nätverket. Sannolikhetsmåttet för avbrott i kommunikationen kan därmed definieras för olika systemmodeller och uttryckas i sluten form för avbrott på en specifik länk, ett specifikt paket, alla länkar eller alla paket i nätverket, och detta både med och utan närvaron av en angripare och/eller starka störningar. Dessa tillförlitlighetsmått kan således användas för att analysera effekterna av flera viktiga parametrar såsom fördelning av signalstyrka mellan noderna, nodernas relativa positioner, användningen av särskilda relänoder eller av omsändningar. Analysen gör det därigenom möjligt att tillhandahålla en uppsättning allmänna riktlinjer för att skräddarsy kommunikationsprotokollen och förbättra kommunikationssäkerheten för alla legitima noder i nätverket. Att ha väldefinierade matematiska uttryck för tillförlitlighetsmåtten möjliggör också omräkning och justering av parametrar snabbare och därmed hitta den bästa lösningen för att förbättra kommunikationens tillförlitlighet direkt under körning. Avhandlingsarbetet visar hur sannolikheten för avbrott kan användas för att förbättra systemets prestanda i flera exempelscenarier, inklusive system som tillåter att flera användare kommunicerar samtidigt, eller de som har mobila accesspunkter och/eller relänoder. Att analysera sannolikheten för avbrott i kommunikationen kan därmed appliceras på ett befintligt kommunikationssystem för att förbättra tillförlitligheten, robustheten och flexibiliteten samtidigt som en låg fördröjning kan bibehållas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2023.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 385
Keywords [en]
Outage probability, pairwise NOMA, physical layer security
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64195ISBN: 978-91-7485-608-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-64195DiVA, id: diva2:1794929
Public defence
2023-10-13, Paros, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
FORASerendipityAvailable from: 2023-09-07 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2023-09-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Reliability and Fairness for UAV Communication Based on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability and Fairness for UAV Communication Based on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops), 2019, no 53Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recently, communication using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as relay nodes has been considered beneficial for a number of applications. Moreover, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with users being assigned different signal power levels while sharing the same time-frequency domain has been found effective to enhance spectrum utilization and provide predictable access to the channel. Thus, in this paper we consider an UAV communication system with NOMA and propose a solution to find the optimal values for the user’s power allocation coefficients (PACs) needed to achieve the required levels of communication reliability. We present a closed-form expression for the PAC of each user and also propose an algorithm for finding the optimal altitude of the UAV required to satisfy the fairness condition for all users. Finally, we provide numerical examples and compare the results for three types of communication environments.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45066 (URN)10.1109/ICCW.2019.8757160 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070266057 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-2373-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications IEEEICC, 20 May 2019, Shanghai, China
Projects
FORA - Fog Computing for Robotics and Industrial Automation
Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2024-05-03Bibliographically approved
2. Outage Performance of Pairwise NOMA Allowing a Dynamic Decoding Order and Optimal Pairs of Power Levels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outage Performance of Pairwise NOMA Allowing a Dynamic Decoding Order and Optimal Pairs of Power Levels
2020 (English)In: IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, E-ISSN 2644-125X, Vol. 1, p. 1886-1906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we evaluate the overall outage probability (OOP) of pairwise Non-orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) for both uplink and downlink. We also propose a dynamic decoding order (DDO) together with a fixed pairwise power allocation (FPPA) scheme, in which the optimal decoding order is decided based on the instantaneous channel gains, and thereafter, a pair of power levels is assigned in accordance with the selected decoding order. Exact closed-form expressions of the OOPs for both uplink and downlink pairwise NOMA considering all proposed decoding orders over Nakagami- m fading are derived. Further, we find the optimal fixed power levels for different power allocation strategies so that the OOPs are minimized. Moreover, we investigate the influence of the distances between the source nodes and the access point (AP), the target transfer rates and the path-loss exponents on the OOPs for all cases of decoding orders. In addition, we benchmark our proposed DDO against other decoding orders in terms of the OOP. The results show that assigning optimal fixed power levels which takes the instantaneous decoding order into account not only improves the communication reliability, but also reduces the complexity and computational load at the AP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden: IEEE OJCOMS, 2020
Keywords
Overall outage probability, pairwise NOMA, dynamic decoding order, optimal power allocation, uplink/downlink NOMA
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-53953 (URN)10.1109/OJCOMS.2020.3039536 (DOI)000723372400126 ()2-s2.0-85119495170 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Future factories in the CloudFORA - Fog Computing for Robotics and Industrial Automation
Available from: 2021-04-22 Created: 2021-04-22 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
3. Defeating Jamming Using Outage Performance Aware Joint Power Allocation and Access Point Placement in Uplink Pairwise NOMA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defeating Jamming Using Outage Performance Aware Joint Power Allocation and Access Point Placement in Uplink Pairwise NOMA
2021 (English)In: IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, E-ISSN 2644-125X, Vol. 2, p. 1957-1979Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, an uplink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) scenario using a mobile access point (AP) or an unmanned aerial vehicle in the presence of a jamming attack is considered. To mitigate the influence of the jamming attack, a joint power allocation and AP placement design is proposed. Accordingly, closed-form expressions of the overall outage probability (OOP) and the individual outage probability (TOP) considering imperfect channel state information for each of the source nodes the AP serves, are derived over Nakagami-m fading channels using dynamic decoding order and fixed pairwise power allocation. We conduct an investigation of the effect of different parameters such as power allocation, source node placements, AP placement, target rates, and jammer location on the OOP and the IOP performance. By adapting the power allocation and the AP placement to the jamming attack, the communication reliability can be increased significantly compared to neglecting the presence of the jammer or treating the jammer as noise. Since the malicious jammer and the AP have conflicting interests in terms of communication reliability, we formulate a non-cooperative game for the two players considering their positions and the power allocation of the NOMA nodes as their strategies and the OOP as utility function. We propose using hybrid simulated annealing - greedy algorithms to address the joint power allocation and AP placement problem for the cases of both a fixed and a mobile jammer. Finally, the Nash equilibrium points are obtained and then the UAV goes directly to this position and keeps staying there to save power consumption.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-55890 (URN)10.1109/OJCOMS.2021.3103540 (DOI)000692134000002 ()2-s2.0-85127267538 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-09-16 Created: 2021-09-16 Last updated: 2024-01-23Bibliographically approved
4. Outage Performance Comparison of Adaptive Relaying Schemes Subject to Jamming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outage Performance Comparison of Adaptive Relaying Schemes Subject to Jamming
2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Proper relay selection (RS) plays a key role for improving the reliability of wireless networks, especially in the presence of jamming attacks and/or interferers. In this work, we consider several RS schemes from the literature, using e.g. channel gains and signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) to select a relayer and evaluate them using outage probability (OP). We also propose an RS scheme which is selecting relayers to maximize the communication reliability in terms of minimizing the OP. The suggested RS strategy also takes the effect of jamming attacks and/or interferers into account. Accordingly, an intensive investigation of the OP of all RS schemes considering also jammers' positions in various scenarios is conducted. The results suggest that a combination of RS schemes using channel gains and SINRs of all hops achieves the best communication reliability in scenarios with intensive interference. The sensitivity for channel estimation errors of the relaying schemes is also investigated. Finally, discussions about the obtained results together with the complexity of all RS schemes are presented before providing guidelines on which schemes should be used in which scenarios to improve the communication reliability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64354 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275372 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175472509 (Scopus ID)
Conference
28th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (IEEE ETFA), September 12 - 15 2023, Sinaia, Romania.
Available from: 2023-09-22 Created: 2023-09-22 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
5. Defeating Jamming Attacks in Downlink Pairwise NOMA Using Relaying
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defeating Jamming Attacks in Downlink Pairwise NOMA Using Relaying
2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study explores an incremental relaying strategy in downlink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA), which involves multiple pairs of nodes near and far from the downlink destinations. The strategy aims to select a near destination node to relay the packet of a far destination node, considering the presence of jamming attacks. To this end, we first derive closed-form expressions for the individual outage probability (IOP) for both near and far destinations in Nakagami-m fading channels. Next, the overall IOP (OIOP) performance is defined as the maximum value among the obtained IOPs, ensuring fairness among the nodes. To optimize the system, simulated annealing algorithms are proposed to determine the best power allocation and the best relay-destination pairing. We can conclude that both the power allocation and the position/selection of the near destination node significantly impact the OIOP for a specific pair. However, in the case of multiple pairs of destinations, a good power allocation alone suffices for each pair, and fixed or even random destination pairing is satisfactory in the considered context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64353 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC56721.2023.10293783 (DOI)001103214700037 ()2-s2.0-85178306945 (Scopus ID)9781665464833 (ISBN)
Conference
34th IEEE Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2023, Toronto, 5 September 2023 through 8 September 2023
Available from: 2023-09-22 Created: 2023-09-22 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
6. Dealing with Jamming Attacks in Uplink Pairwise NOMA Using Outage Analysis, Smart Relaying and Redundant Transmissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dealing with Jamming Attacks in Uplink Pairwise NOMA Using Outage Analysis, Smart Relaying and Redundant Transmissions
2024 (English)In: Open Journal of the Communications Society, Vol. 5, p. 112-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on optimizing the performance of an uplink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) scenario with and without the support of a relayer, while subject to jamming attacks. We consider two different relaying protocols, one where the sources and the destination are within range of each other and one where they are not. The relay node can be mobile, e.g., a mobile base station, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a stationary node that is chosen as a result of a relay selection procedure. We also benchmark with a NOMA retransmission protocol and an Orthogonal Multiple Access (OMA) scheme without a relayer. We analyze, adjust and compare the four protocols for different settings using outage analysis, which is an efficient tool for establishing communication reliability for both individual nodes and the overall wireless network. Closed-form expressions of outage probabilities can be adopted by deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms to optimize wireless networks online. Accordingly, we first derive closed-form expressions for the individual outage probability (IOP) of each source node link and the relayer link using both pairwise NOMA and OMA. Next, we analyze the IOP for one packet (IOPP) for each source node considering all possible links between the source node to the destination, taking both phases into account for the considered protocols when operating in Nakagami-m fading channels. The overall outage probability for all packets (OOPP) is defined as the maximum IOPP obtained among the source nodes. This metric is useful to optimize the whole wireless network, e.g., to ensure fairness among the source nodes. Then, we propose a method using deep RL where the OOPP is used as a reward function in order to adapt to the dynamic environment associated with jamming attacks. Finally, we discuss valuable guidelines for enhancing the communication reliability of the legitimate system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2024
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64352 (URN)10.1109/OJCOMS.2023.3339175 (DOI)001133503200001 ()2-s2.0-85179799440 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-22 Created: 2023-09-22 Last updated: 2024-01-23Bibliographically approved
7. Anomaly Attack Detection in Wireless Networks Using DCNN
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anomaly Attack Detection in Wireless Networks Using DCNN
2022 (English)In: 2022 IEEE 8th World Forum on Internet of Things, WF-IoT 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of wireless devices in industrial sectors has increased due to its various advantages related to cost and flexibility. However, legitimate wireless communication systems are vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks, due to its inherent open nature. Detection of rogue devices therefore plays a crucial role in critical wireless applications. In this paper we design a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) to classify legitimate and rogue devices using raw IQ samples as input data. An algorithm is presented to find the optimal number of convolutional layers and number of filters for each layer under an accuracy constraint, in order to enable fast prediction time. Furthermore, we investigate how wireless channel models affect the accuracy and prediction time of the designed DCNN model. Our obtained results are benchmarked against previous DCNN models. Moreover, we discuss how the systems should react to a detected rogue device, considering the IEC 62443 standard.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
deep learning, finger-printing, IEC 62443, rogue device detection, Anomaly detection, Convolution, Cybersecurity, Deep neural networks, Neural network models, Wireless networks, Attack detection, Convolutional neural network, Finger printing, Industrial sector, Neural network model, Prediction time, Wireless devices, Convolutional neural networks
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63902 (URN)10.1109/WF-IoT54382.2022.10152227 (DOI)001017754700120 ()2-s2.0-85164147423 (Scopus ID)9781665491532 (ISBN)
Conference
8th IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things, WF-IoT 2022, Online, Yokohama, Japan, 26 October 2022 through 11 November 2022
Available from: 2023-07-19 Created: 2023-07-19 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved

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