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Supporting end-to-end data propagation delay analysis for TSN-based distributed vehicular embedded systems
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3469-1834
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7586-0409
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2023 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 141, article id 102911Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we identify that the existing end-to-end data propagation delay analysis for distributed embedded systems can calculate pessimistic (over-estimated) analysis results when the nodes are synchronized. This is particularly the case of the Scheduled Traffic (ST) class in Time-sensitive Networking (TSN), which is scheduled offline according to the IEEE 802.1Qbv standard and the nodes are synchronized according to the IEEE 802.1AS standard. We present a comprehensive system model for distributed embedded systems that incorporates all of the above mentioned aspect as well as all traffic classes in TSN. We extend the analysis to support both synchronization and non-synchronization among the ECUs as well as offline schedules on the networks. The extended analysis can now be used to analyze all traffic classes in TSN when the nodes are synchronized without introducing any pessimism in the analysis results. We evaluate the proposed model and the extended analysis on a vehicular industrial use case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V. , 2023. Vol. 141, article id 102911
Keywords [en]
Distributed embedded systems, Real-time systems, Time-sensitive networking, Data communication systems, Data flow analysis, Data transfer, Embedded systems, IEEE Standards, Interactive computer systems, Real time systems, Data propagation, Delay analysis, Distributed embedded system, End to end, Extended analysis, Offline, Propagation delays, Real - Time system, Traffic class, Synchronization
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63666DOI: 10.1016/j.sysarc.2023.102911ISI: 001024619100001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85162169933OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-63666DiVA, id: diva2:1776908
Available from: 2023-06-28 Created: 2023-06-28 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Configuration and Timing Analysis of TSN-based Distributed Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuration and Timing Analysis of TSN-based Distributed Embedded Systems
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The set of IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards is an emerging candidate for backbone communication in modern applications of real-time distributed embedded systems. TSN provides various traffic shaping mechanisms that aim at managing the timing requirements of traffic. Emerging applications of these systems, particularly in the automotive domain, often run complex distributed software that requires low-latency and high-bandwidth communication across multiple onboard electronic control units. Using TSN in these systems introduces multiple challenges. Specifically, the developers of these systems face a lack of development techniques and tools, as TSN standards only offer general recommendations for the use of its features and mechanisms. There is an urgent need for development techniques, tools, and methods to assist the developers in effectively leveraging the features outlined in TSN standards. In this thesis, we identify and address several challenges encountered in the development of TSN-based distributed embedded systems, particularly focusing on the stages of system and software modeling, network configuration, and timing analysis. The overall goal of this thesis is to support the development of these systems in the aforementioned stages while considering the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of all traffic classes in TSN. We present techniques to facilitate the system and software modeling of TSN-based distributed embedded systems. These techniques enable performing timing analysis in the early stages of system and software development. In the stage of network configuration, we propose techniques for managing the configuration complexity and supporting the automatic configuration of mechanisms in TSN. The proposed configuration techniques consider achieving acceptable QoS in various traffic classes. In the stage of timing analysis, we address the challenges of incorporating various TSN traffic classes and mechanisms by extending the existing timing analyses. The results indicate that the proposed techniques effectively facilitate the system and software modeling, network configuration, and timing analysis of TSN-based distributed embedded systems.

Abstract [sv]

IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) är en framväxande kommunikationsteknik för moderna tillämpningar inom distribuerade inbyggda realtidssystem. TSN definerar olika mekanismer för trafikomformning som syftar till att ge flexibilitet i hur fördröjningar och bandbredd fördelas mellan olika användare. Nya tillämpningar av distribuerade inbyggda system i realtid har ofta mycket komplex distribuerad programvara som kräver kommunikation med låg latens och hög bandbredd över flera enheter (ECU I automotiv system). Att anpassa sig till TSN för att utveckla sådana system innebär många utmaningar. Dessutom finns det en brist på stödtekniker för utvecklare eftersom TSN-standarder endast ger generaliserade rekommendationer för tillämpningen av dess mekanismer. Därför finns det ett behov av tekniker och metoder för att stödja utvecklare att använda tillgängliga funktioner i TSN-standarderna. I den här avhandlingen angriper vi några av utmaningarna i utvecklingsstadierna av TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system som är modellering, konfiguration av nätverk och tidsanalys. Målet med avhandlingen är att stödja utvecklingen av TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system i dessastadier, samtidigt som man tar hänsyn till Quality of Service (QoS) krav inom alla trafikklasser i TSN. Vi tillhandahåller tekniker för att underlätta system- och mjukvarumodellering av TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system som ger ett verktyg för utvecklare att designa sina system i tidiga stadier av systemutveckling. Inom konfiguration av nätverk föreslår vi tekniker för att hantera komplexiteten och den automatiska konfigurationen av TSN-formningsmekanismer. Under tiden tar vi hänsyn till att nå en acceptabel QoS i olika trafikklasser. Inom tidsanalysen tar vi itu med utmaningarna med att införliva olika TSN-trafikklasser och mekanismer genom att utöka de befintliga tidsanalysmetoderna. Genom de tre bidragna tillvägagångssätten underlättar våra resultat processen att utveckla TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2024. p. 259
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 402
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65958 (URN)978-91-7485-634-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-03-12, Gamma och via Zoom, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2024-02-08 Created: 2024-02-07 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved

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Houtan, BaharAshjaei, Seyed Mohammad HosseinDaneshtalab, MasoudSjödin, MikaelMubeen, Saad

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