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Direct and diffuse shading factors modelling for the most representative agrivoltaic system layouts
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2225-029X
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3168-1569
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8191-4901
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2023 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 339, article id 120981Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agrivoltaic systems are becoming increasingly popular as a crucial technology for attaining multiple sustainable development goals, such as affordable and clean energy, zero hunger, clean water and sanitation, and climate action. However, a comprehensive understanding of the shading effects on crops is essential for choosing an optimal agrivoltaic system, as an incorrect choice can result in significant crop yield reductions. In this study, fixed vertical, one-axis tracking, and two-axis tracking photovoltaic arrays were developed for agrivoltaic applications to analyse the shading conditions on the ground used for crop production. The models demonstrated remarkable accuracy in comparison to commercial software such as PVsyst® and SketchUp®. These models will help to reduce crop yield uncertainty under agrivoltaic systems by providing accurate photosynthetically active radiation distribution at the crop level. The photosynthetically active radiation distribution was further analysed using a light homogeneity index, and the results showed that homogeneity and photosynthetically active radiation reduction varied significantly depending on the agrivoltaic system design, ranging from 86% to 95%, and 11% to 22%, respectively. Studying the effect of shading with distribution analysis is crucial for identifying the most suitable agrivoltaic system layout for specific crops and geographical locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2023. Vol. 339, article id 120981
Keywords [en]
Agrivoltaics, Beam Shading Factor, Diffuse Shading Factor, Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Photovoltaics, Tracking
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62207DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.120981ISI: 000967301400001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85151327591OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-62207DiVA, id: diva2:1750093
Funder
SOLVE, 52693-1Swedish Energy Agency, 51000-1Swedish Research Council Formas, FR-2021/0005Available from: 2023-04-12 Created: 2023-04-12 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Microclimate modelling for agrivoltaic systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microclimate modelling for agrivoltaic systems
2024 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasing global electricity consumption and population growth have resulted in conflicts between renewable energy sources, such as bioenergy and ground-mounted photovoltaic systems, owing to the limited availability of suitable land caused by competing land uses. This challenge is further compounded by the intertwined relationship between energy and agri-food systems, where approximately 30% of global energy is consumed. In addition, considering that agricultural irrigation accounts for 70% of water use worldwide, its impact on both land and water resources becomes a critical concern. Agrivoltaics offers a potential solution to this land use conflict. However, a knowledge gap remains regarding the impact of integrating these techniques on microclimatic conditions. Addressing this gap is crucial because these conditions directly affect the growth and development of crops, as well as the efficiency of energy yields in photovoltaic panels. Experimental facilities offer valuable insights tailored to specific locations and system designs. Although they provide an in-depth understanding of a particular location, the extrapolation of this information to different locations or alternative systems may be limited. Therefore, the broader applicability of these insights to diverse settings or alternative systems remains unclear. In this thesis, a modelling procedure was developed to evaluate the photosynthetically active radiation reaching crops in typical agrivoltaic configurations across three diverse geographical locations in Europe. This is essential for understanding how solar panel shading affects the incoming photosynthetically active radiation required for crop photosynthesis. Furthermore, computational fluid dynamics were employed to model and assess the microclimate of an experimental agrivoltaic system. The developed model revealed significant variations in photosynthetically active radiation distribution across different agrivoltaic systems and locations, emphasising the need for tailored designs for optimal energy yield and crop productivity. Computational fluid dynamics analysis demonstrated its effectiveness in evaluating microclimatic parameters such as air and soil temperature, wind speed, and solar irradiance within agrivoltaic systems, providing valuable insights for system optimisation. By bridging a knowledge gap, this thesis contributes to the understanding of the modelling and simulation of agrivoltaic system microclimates, thereby facilitating the sustainable coexistence of renewable electricity conversion and agriculture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2024
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 353
Keywords
Agrivoltaics; Microclimate; Modelling
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66113 (URN)978-91-7485-632-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2024-03-15, Delta, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 52693-1Swedish Energy Agency, P2022-00809
Available from: 2024-02-26 Created: 2024-02-23 Last updated: 2024-03-01Bibliographically approved

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Zainali, SebastianMa Lu, SilviaStridh, BengtAvelin, AndersCampana, Pietro Elia

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