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End-to-end QoS Mapping and Traffic Forwarding in Converged TSN-5G Networks
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. (HERO)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6621-2423
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The advancement of technology has led to an increase in the demand for ultra-low end-to-end network latency in real-time applications with a target of below 10ms. The IEEE 802.1 Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a set of standards that supports the required low-latency wired communication with ultra-low jitter for real-time applications. TSN is designed for fixed networks thus it misses the flexibility of wireless networks.To overcome this limitation and to increase its applicability in different applications, an integration of TSN with other wireless technologies is needed. The fifth generation of cellular networks (5G) supports real-time applications with its Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC) service. 5G URLLC is designed to meet the stringent timing requirements of these applications, such as providing reliable communication with latencies as low as 1ms. Seamless integration of TSN and 5G is needed to fully utilize the potential of these technologies in contemporary and future industrial applications. However, to achieve the end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of a TSN-5G network, a significant effort is required due to the large dissimilarity between these technologies.

This thesis presents a comprehensive and well-structured snapshot of the existing research on TSN-5G integration that identifies gaps in the current research and highlights the opportunities for further research in the area of TSN-5G integration. In particular, the thesis identifies that the state of the art lacks an end-to-end mapping of QoS requirements and traffic forwarding mechanisms for a converged TSN-5G network. This lack of knowledge and tool support hampers the utilisation of ground-breaking technologies like TSN and 5G. Hence, the thesis develops novel techniques to support the end-to-end QoS mapping and traffic forwarding of a converged TSN-5G network for predictable communication.Furthermore, the thesis presents a translation technique between TSN and 5G with a proof-of-concept implementation in a well-known TSN network simulator. Moreover, a novel QoS mapping algorithm is proposed to support the systematic mapping of QoS characteristics and integration of traffic flows in a converged TSN-5G network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens universitet, 2023.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 337
Keywords [en]
Time-Sensitive Networking, TSN, 5G, TSN-5G, URLLC, Industry 4.0.
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62060ISBN: 978-91-7485-587-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-62060DiVA, id: diva2:1742981
Presentation
2023-04-20, Delta och online via Zoom, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 12:57 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
PROVIDENT
Funder
Vinnova, 16533Available from: 2023-03-14 Created: 2023-03-13 Last updated: 2023-03-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A comprehensive systematic review of integration of time sensitive networking and 5G communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive systematic review of integration of time sensitive networking and 5G communication
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2023 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 138, article id 102852Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many industrial real-time applications in various domains, e.g., automotive, industrial automation, industrial IoT, and industry 4.0, require ultra-low end-to-end network latency, often in the order of 10 milliseconds or less. The IEEE 802.1 time-sensitive networking (TSN) is a set of standards that supports the required low-latency wired communication with ultra-low jitter. The flexibility of such a wired connection can be increased if it is integrated with a mobile wireless network. The fifth generation of cellular networks (5G) is capable of supporting the required levels of network latency with the Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC) service. To fully utilize the potential of these two technologies (TSN and 5G) in industrial applications, seamless integration of the TSN wired-based network with the 5G wireless-based network is needed. In this article, we provide a comprehensive and well-structured snapshot of the existing research on TSN-5G integration. In this regard, we present the planning, execution, and analysis results of the systematic review. We also identify the trends, technical characteristics, and potential gaps in the state of the art, thus highlighting future research directions in the integration of TSN and 5G communication technologies. We notice that 73% of the primary studies address the time synchronization in the integration of TSN and 5G technologies, introducing approaches with an accuracy starting from the levels of hundred nanoseconds to one microsecond. Majority of primary studies aim at optimizing communication latency in their approach, which is a key quality attribute in automotive and industrial automation applications today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Time-Sensitive Networking, TSN, 5G, TSN-5G, URLLC, Industry 4.0
National Category
Communication Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62062 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2023.102852 (DOI)000956098500001 ()2-s2.0-85149863981 (Scopus ID)
Projects
PROVIDENT
Funder
Vinnova, 16533
Available from: 2023-03-13 Created: 2023-03-13 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved
2. Developing a Translation Technique for Converged TSN-5G Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a Translation Technique for Converged TSN-5G Communication
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2022 (English)In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 103-110Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a set of IEEE standards based on switched Ethernet that aim at meeting high-bandwidth and low-latency requirements in wired communication. TSN implementations typically do not support integration of wireless networks, which limits their applicability to many industrial applications that need both wired and wire-less communication. The development of 5G and its promised Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communication (URLLC) in-tegrated with TSN would offer a promising solution to meet the bandwidth, latency and reliability requirements in these industrial applications. In order to support such an integration, we propose a technique to translate the traffic between TSN and 5G communication technologies. As a proof of concept, we implement the translation technique in a well-known TSN simulator, namely NeSTiNg, that is based on the OMNeT ++ tool. Furthermore, we evaluate the proposed technique using an automotive industrial use case. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
3GPP, 5G, TSN, TSN Translator, URLLC, Bandwidth, IEEE Standards, High bandwidth, High-low, Low latency, Low-latency communication, Switched ethernet, Time sensitive networking, Time sensitive networking translator, Ultra-reliable and low-latency communication, 5G mobile communication systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-59265 (URN)10.1109/WFCS53837.2022.9779191 (DOI)000843639500014 ()2-s2.0-85131818621 (Scopus ID)9781665410861 (ISBN)
Conference
18th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems, WFCS 2022, 27 April 2022 through 29 April 2022
Available from: 2022-06-23 Created: 2022-06-23 Last updated: 2023-03-14Bibliographically approved
3. QoS-MAN: A Novel QoS Mapping Algorithm for TSN-5G Flows
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoS-MAN: A Novel QoS Mapping Algorithm for TSN-5G Flows
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2022 (English)In: 2022 IEEE 28TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS (RTCSA 2022), IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2022, p. 220-227Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Integrating wired Ethernet networks, such as Time-Sensitive Networks (TSN), to 5G cellular network requires a flow management technique to efficiently map TSN traffic to 5G Quality-of-Service (QoS) flows. The 3GPP Release 16 provides a set of predefined QoS characteristics, such as priority level, packet delay budget, and maximum data burst volume, which can be used for the 5G QoS flows. Within this context, mapping TSN traffic flows to 5G QoS flows in an integrated TSN-5G network is of paramount importance as the mapping can significantly impact on the end-to-end QoS in the integrated network. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient mapping algorithm to map different TSN traffic flows to 5G QoS flows. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first QoS-aware mapping algorithm based on the application constraints used to exchange flows between TSN and 5G network domains. We evaluate the proposed mapping algorithm on synthetic scenarios with random sets of constraints on deadline, jitter, bandwidth, and packet loss rate. The evaluation results show that the proposed mapping algorithm can fulfill over 90% of the applications' constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2022
Series
IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, ISSN 1533-2306
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-60673 (URN)10.1109/RTCSA55878.2022.00030 (DOI)000877324400024 ()2-s2.0-85141408527 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-5344-8 (ISBN)
Conference
28th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), Taipei, Taoiwan, 23-25 August, 2022
Available from: 2022-11-21 Created: 2022-11-21 Last updated: 2023-04-13Bibliographically approved
4. Work in Progress: A Centralized Configuration Model for TSN-5G Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work in Progress: A Centralized Configuration Model for TSN-5G Networks
2022 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, Vol. 2022-SeptemberConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The integration of Time-Sensitive Networks (TSN) with 5G cellular networks requires a defined architecture for network configuration and management. Although 3GPP specifications provide necessary means for the TSN-5G integration, the operation of such converged TSN-5G network remains an open challenge for the research community. To address this challenge, this paper presents the ongoing work in developing a centralized architectural model to configure the TSN-5G network, and forward traffic from TSN to 5G and vice-versa. The proposed architectural model uses knowledge of the traffic characteristics to carry out a more accurate mapping of quality of service attributes between TSN and 5G.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
5G, Network Configuration, Time-Sensitive Networking, TSN-5G, Quality of service, Queueing networks, Architectural modeling, Cellular network, Centralised, Configuration and managements, Configuration modeling, Networks management, Time-sensitive network-5g, 5G mobile communication systems
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-60956 (URN)10.1109/ETFA52439.2022.9921731 (DOI)000934103900264 ()2-s2.0-85141390933 (Scopus ID)9781665499965 (ISBN)
Conference
27th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2022, Stuttgart, Germany, 6-9 September 2022
Available from: 2022-11-22 Created: 2022-11-22 Last updated: 2023-03-22Bibliographically approved

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Satka, Zenepe

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