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Configurations for second-life operations of electric vehicle batteries: A guiding framework for ecosystem management
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7512-4425
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7233-6916
Lund University, Sweden.
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2022 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Firms need multi-stakeholder ecosystems to create successful second-life business models for electric vehicle (EV) batteries. However, there is a lack of guiding instrumentsto support the process of strategizing and managing the EV battery ecosystem for secondlife operations. The purpose of this study is to propose a guiding framework that could support firms in the EV battery ecosystem to establish and manage various configurations for second-life operations. The study developed a framework with four configuration phases—namely, firm-level initiation, ecosystem construction, firm-level optimization, and ecosystem orchestration. Based on these phases, the paper describes three configuration pathways to establish and manage second-life operations

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: EurOMA , 2022.
Keywords [en]
EV battery ecosystem, Circular business models, Battery second life
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61436OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-61436DiVA, id: diva2:1724186
Conference
29th International EurOMA Conference, 1-6 July 2022, Berlin
Available from: 2023-01-05 Created: 2023-01-05 Last updated: 2023-01-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Circular Business Models for Electric Vehicle Battery Second Life: Challenges, enablers, and preconditions from an ecosystem perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circular Business Models for Electric Vehicle Battery Second Life: Challenges, enablers, and preconditions from an ecosystem perspective
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sustainability has become a critical issue due to global warming, scarcity of resources, and the high costs of raw materials. It is vital to reconsider linear business models and value creation processes and transition towards circularity. The growth of the electric vehicles market is promising; however, it comes with a major downside. Soon there will be a considerable number of used batteries without the original capacity and potentially hazardous that cannot go to landfill due to environmental and economic reasons. In this regard, the use of electric vehicle batteries in second life (EVBSL) is suggested as a solution. EVBSL comes with benefits such as the extension of the battery life cycle, extracting value from the remaining capacity of the battery, reduction in the upfront costs of the electric vehicle, and create new revenue streams for the companies. And since various actors are involved in EVBSL, it is essential to study this phenomenon from an ecosystem perspective.

Despite the recent focus of researchers on EVBSL, there are several gaps in the current literature on this topic. The first gap concerns the challenges and enablers of implementing circular business models (CBMs) for EVBSL. The second gap concerns the second life operations of electric vehicles (EV). There is a lack of research on the solutions that can guide the ecosystem actors to manage EVBSL-related activities. And the third gap concerns the limited research on the preconditions of circular business model innovation for the EVBSL that focuses on the transition from linear business models to CBMs. Therefore, this thesis aims to develop knowledge of the factors that influence the implementation of CBMs for EVBSL from an ecosystem perspective.

This study intends to address these gaps by conducting qualitative research. An exploratory research design has been deemed adequate due to its flexibility and compatibility. This research draws on the existing literature on the second life of EV batteries, and circular business models. In total, 20 interviews and 15 workshops have been conducted covering 15 companies in the EVBSL ecosystem. Purposeful sampling was employed to select the EVBSL ecosystem actors with the aim of covering the key actors such as OEMs, battery manufacturer, recycling companies, remanufacturers, energy utility companies, material supplier for battery parts, construction and housing company, and public transportation companies. The collected data was analyzed via qualitative methods such as thematic analysis. 

The results of this study have led to the identification of nine key challenges and seven key enablers. Moreover, two dimensions (i.e., time frame and responsible entity) are identified from the empirical data, through which companies can structurally categorize and work with the identified key challenges and enablers. Based on this, a guiding framework is suggested that could support firms in the EV battery ecosystem to establish and manage various configurations for second-life operations in a series of phases such as firm-level initiation, ecosystem construction, firm-level optimization, and ecosystem orchestration. Finally, the current linear business models (traditional sales of products and services, product maintenance and support, R&D, consultancy, and services), upcoming CBMs (regenerating, looping, and sharing), and the preconditions (for value creation, capture, and delivery) for the circular business model innovation are extracted. 

This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge in several ways. It enhances the current literature on challenges and enablers of EVBSL by covering various actors in this ecosystem and extends the knowledge on the scope of these factors. Moreover, this study is the first one that suggests a guiding framework for the ecosystem actors through configurations for second-life operations while shedding light on the preconditions of circular business innovation for EVBSL. This study also provides interesting insights for practitioners and managers in the EVBSL ecosystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Mälardalens universitet, 2023. p. 73
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 335
Keywords
Electric vehicle battery second life, circular business models, ecosystem, electric vehicles, EV batteries, circular business model innovation, circular economy, preconditions, second life configurations, battery second life
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Business Administration Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61443 (URN)978-91-7485-579-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2023-02-17, C3-003, Mälardalens universitet, Eskilstuna, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
RECREATE project
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 1602, 2019XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research, 0219, 2016
Available from: 2023-01-10 Created: 2023-01-07 Last updated: 2023-01-27Bibliographically approved

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Chirumalla, KoteshwarToorajipour, RezaDahlquist, ErikWallin, Fredrik

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