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Photosynthetically active radiation decomposition models for agrivoltaic systems applications
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2225-029X
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3168-1569
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8191-4901
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2022 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 244, p. 536-549Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Decomposition models of solar irradiance estimate the magnitude of diffuse horizontal irradiance from global horizontal irradiance. These two radiation components are well known to be essential for predicting the performance of solar photovoltaic systems. In open-field agrivoltaic systems (i.e., the dual use of land for both agricultural activities and solar power conversion), cultivated crops receive unequal amounts of direct, diffuse, and reflected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). These uneven amounts depend on where the crops are growing due to the non-homogenous shadings caused by the presence of the installed solar panels (above the crops or vertically mounted). It is known that, per unit of total PAR, diffuse PAR is more efficient for canopy photosynthesis than is direct PAR. For this reason, it is essential to estimate the diffuse PAR component when agrivoltaic systems are being assessed, in order to properly predict the crop yield. Since PAR is the electro-magnetic radiation in the 400-700 nm waveband that can be used for photosynthesis by the crops, several stand-alone decomposition models typically used to split global horizontal irradiance are selected in this study to decompose PAR into direct and diffuse. These models are applied and validated in three locations in Sweden (Lanna, Hyltemossa and Norunda) using the coefficients stated on the models' original publications and locally fitted coefficients. The results showed weaker performances in all stand-alone models for non-locally fitted coefficients (nRMSE ranging from 27% to 43%). However, performances improve with re-parameterization, with a highest nRMSE of 35.24% in Lanna. The Y(ANG)2 decomposition model is the best-performing one, with the lowest nRMSE of 23.75% in Norunda when applying re-estimated coefficients. Country level sets of coefficients for the best-performing models (Y(ANG)2 and STARKE) are given after parameterization using combined data for all three locations in Sweden. These Sweden-fitted models are tested and show an nRMSE of 25.08% (Y(ANG)2) and 28.60% (STARKE). These results can be used to perform estimations of the PAR diffuse component in Sweden wherever ground measurements are not available. The overall methodology can be similarly applied to other countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD , 2022. Vol. 244, p. 536-549
Keywords [en]
Agrivoltaic, Photosynthetically active radiation, Decomposition models, Diffuse fraction, Integrated Carbon Observation System
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-60198DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2022.05.046ISI: 000860998200002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85134749111OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-60198DiVA, id: diva2:1702931
Funder
SOLVEAvailable from: 2022-10-12 Created: 2022-10-12 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Solar Irradiance Assessment in Agrivoltaic Systems: Understanding Photosynthetically Active Radiation Separation Models and Dynamic Crop Albedo Effect in Agrivoltaic Systems Modelling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar Irradiance Assessment in Agrivoltaic Systems: Understanding Photosynthetically Active Radiation Separation Models and Dynamic Crop Albedo Effect in Agrivoltaic Systems Modelling
2024 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Agrivoltaics, also referred as agrivoltaic systems, present an appealing solution, owing to its dual land use and integrated food-energy system, for the shift to renewable energy. However, it raises concerns about the complex synergies and trade-offs between crop growth and solar photovoltaic panels. Crops grown under open-field traditional agriculture receive uniformly distributed Sun irradiance, whereas agrivoltaics introduces variable shadowing, which interferes with the homogeneity of light collected by crops. 

Agrivoltaics emphasises the significance of the diffuse irradiance component during shading conditions when direct irradiance is blocked by solar panels. Decomposition models are essential for estimating the diffuse light component from the global one. This thesis conducts a benchmarking investigation of state-of-the-art solar irradiance decomposition models to identify the most suitable ones for decomposing photosynthetically active radiation in specific Swedish sites. The results lead to a novel separation model that outperforms the top models revealed in the benchmarking analysis. Various scenarios common in agrivoltaic sites are used to test the applicability of the model and guide model selection based on available data. 

In agrivoltaic systems, where solar panels disrupt incoming sunlight to crops, the crop reflectivity or albedo influences solar panels, particularly those with bifacial solar cells. This thesis further investigates how ground-reflected irradiance components affect the front and rear sides of bifacial system designs under varied ground albedo circumstances. Using Agri-OptiCE®, this research examines how albedo data quality affects bifacial systems. The findings contribute to improve the precision of plane-of-array irradiance and power output estimations, hence aiding the practical implementation of agrivoltaic systems across the globe. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2024
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 359
Keywords
Agrivoltaics, Albedo, Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Decomposition Model, Solar Energy
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66407 (URN)978-91-7485-645-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2024-05-15, Paros, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 52693-1
Available from: 2024-04-17 Created: 2024-04-10 Last updated: 2024-04-24Bibliographically approved

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Ma Lu, SilviaZainali, SebastianStridh, BengtAvelin, AndersCampana, Pietro Elia

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