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GeoRep-Resilient Storage for Wide Area Networks
Braxo AB, S-11864 Stockholm, Sweden..ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4606-5144
Chalmers Tekn Hgsk, Dept Comp Sci & Engn, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0611-2655
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3242-6113
2022 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 75772-75788Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Embedded systems typically have limited processing and storage capabilities, and may only intermittently be powered on. After sending data from its sensors upstream, the system must therefore be able to trust that the data, once acknowledged, is not lost. The purpose of this work is to propose a novel solution for replicating data between the upstream nodes in such systems, with a minimal effect on the software architecture. On the assumption that there is no relative order between replicated data tuples, we designed a new replication protocol based on partial replication. Our protocol uses only 2 communication steps per data tuple, instead of the 3 to 12 used by other solutions. We verified its failover mechanism in a proof-of-concept implementation of the protocol using simulated network failures, and evaluated the implementation on throughput and latency in several controlled experiments using up to 7 nodes in up to 5 geographically separated areas, with up to 1000 data producers per node. The recorded system throughput increased linearly relative to both the number of nodes and the number of data producers. For comparison, Paxos showed a performance similar to our protocol when using 3 nodes, but got slower as more nodes were added. The lack of a relative order, in combination with partial replication, enables our system to continue working during network partitions, not only in the part containing the majority of the nodes, but also in any sufficiently large minority partitions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022. Vol. 10, p. 75772-75788
Keywords [en]
Servers, Protocols, Throughput, Internet of Things, Queueing analysis, Resilience, Companies, Store-and-forward, replication, distributed computing, availability
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-59629DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3191686ISI: 000831069700001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85135218229OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-59629DiVA, id: diva2:1686111
Available from: 2022-08-08 Created: 2022-08-08 Last updated: 2022-09-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Improving the Efficiency and Reliability of Text Messaging Gateways
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the Efficiency and Reliability of Text Messaging Gateways
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

When software communicates, it typically uses some middleware. In this thesis we focus on the group of middleware called “messaging gateways”, which normally uses the store-and-forward architecture. Our overall goal is to find ways to improve the throughput and reliability of such gateways in general, in particular the ones used for forwarding mobile text messages. In short, our work resulted in a new anomaly detection algorithm, a reduction of the number of database operations in a commercial messaging gateway, and two new highly performant data replication protocols.

In addressing the throughput, we first wanted a better understanding of how the round-trip times for outgoing requests varied, in order to correctly detect abnormal delays. This resulted in a generalized extension of exponential smoothing, which we used in a novel algorithm to detect anomalies.

We then performed an architecture analysis of an industrial messaging gateway based on its quality requirements. From this exploratory case study, we deduced a somewhat unexpected plan to migrate the balance management module to a set of microservices, and identified situations where database operations could be batched in order to also provide higher throughput.

A common and easy way to improve the reliability of a system is to replicate the stored data to one or more additional servers. However, we found that this approach often leads to lower throughput due to extra network traffic required. We addressed this by first writing a problem formulation on how the quality attributes of a messaging gateway would be affected by a multi-node configuration, resulting in a review of state of the art and state of practice for multi-node systems. 

Building on this review, we developed a new data replication algorithm, which we validated in a controlled experiment. Its proof-of-concept implementation showed that even in a geo-distributed configuration, replication throughput can scale with the number of nodes. 

Text messaging gateways often have a module for credit management, used when billing the senders for their traffic. In a multi-node environment the maintenance of the corresponding credit balances requires synchronization between the nodes, for which we designed and implemented an algorithm which uses less network traffic than existing solutions in many real-world situations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens universitet, 2022
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 364
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-60047 (URN)978-91-7485-566-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-11-22, Gamma, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-09-29 Created: 2022-09-28 Last updated: 2022-11-01Bibliographically approved

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Brahneborg, DanielAfzal, WasifMubeen, Saad

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