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Minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin
Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
2008 (engelsk)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
Abstract [en]

The aim of this project is to investigate the possibilities of minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin. Kraft lignin contains about 1.5 to 3% sulphur. The sulphur is believed to be present in lignin as inorganic sulphur, as elemental sulphur, as adsorbed polysulphide and/or as organically bound sulphur. For the determination of these different types of sulphur components, different approaches and methods were used. For the determination of inorganic sulphur, lignin was washed with water at pH 6 and pH 2 and the wash waters were analysed with ion chromatography (IC). For the determination of total sulphur content in the lignin, two methods were used; Schöniger combustion followed by ion chromatography (IC) and wet digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The elemental sulphur content in water-extracted lignin was determined after n-pentane extraction. ICP analysis was performed on the washed lignin.

Calcium present in the lignin may bind polysulphides and thus be a source of the observed sulphur. The lignin was thus ion-exchanged to remove any calcium. To further investigate how the sulphur content in lignin can be decreased, two different types of reactions were performed on lignin; oxidation and reduction. The oxidation reactions were made in sodium hydroxide with oxygen at different temperatures and time on both original and water-extracted lignin. The reduction reactions were made on water-extracted lignin with Raney nickel in three different solvent systems: methanol: water, acetone: water and sodium hydroxide.

 

The original lignin contained 2.6% sulphur as determined by ICP. Washing lowered the content to 1.85% sulphur. By n-pentane extraction the elemental sulphur was lowered to a level of 1.82% sulphur, which was considered to be organically bound sulphur. Neither the ion exchange nor the oxidation lowered the sulphur content significantly.

 

The reduction reactions successfully the organically bound sulphur from 1.82% to a level of 0.54%.

 

The relative distribution of the sulphur content in the studied softwood lignin was as follows: about 29% as inorganic sulphur, about 1% as elemental sulphur and approximately 70% as organically bound sulphur, of which 49% could be removed by Raney nickel.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2008. , s. 39
Emneord
Kraft lignin, sulphur content, minimizing, Raney nickel, desulphurisation
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-998OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-998DiVA, id: diva2:1676
Uppsök
teknik
Veileder
Examiner
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-10-03 Laget: 2008-09-14 Sist oppdatert: 2008-10-03bibliografisk kontrollert

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