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Toward an Ideal Access Control Strategy for Industry 4.0 Manufacturing Systems
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB Proc Automat, S-72180 Vasteras, Sweden..ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2488-5774
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5293-3804
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7235-6888
ABB AB Proc Automat, S-72180 Vasteras, Sweden..
2021 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 114037-114050Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial control systems control and supervise our most important and critical infrastructures, such as power utilities, clean water plants and nuclear plants, as well as the manufacturing industries at the base of our economy. These systems are currently undergoing a transformation driven by the Industry 4.0 evolution, characterized by increased connectivity and flexibility. Consequently, the cybersecurity threat landscape for industrial control systems is evolving as well. Current strategies used for access control within industrial control systems are relatively rudimentary. It is evident that some of the emerging cybersecurity threats related to Industry 4.0 could be better mitigated using more fine-grained access control policies. In this article we discuss and describe a number of access control strategies that could be used within manufacturing systems. We evaluate the strategies in a simulation experiment, using a number of attack-scenarios. Moreover, a method is outlined for automatic policy-generation based on engineering-data, which is aligned with one of the best performing strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC , 2021. Vol. 9, p. 114037-114050
Keywords [en]
Access control, Manufacturing, Manufacturing systems, Task analysis, Production, Process control, Computer security, cybersecurity, Industry 4, 0, modular automation
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-55824DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3104649ISI: 000686749800001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85113335982OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-55824DiVA, id: diva2:1592634
Available from: 2021-09-09 Created: 2021-09-09 Last updated: 2023-10-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dynamic Access Control for Industrial Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Access Control for Industrial Systems
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial automation and control systems (IACS) are taking care of our most important infrastructures, providing electricity and clean water, producing medicine and food, along with many other services and products we take for granted. The continuous, safe, and secure operation of such systems are obviously of great importance. Future iterations of IACS will look quite different from the ones we use today. Modular and flexible systems are emerging, powered by technical advances in areas such as artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and motivated by fluctuating market demands and faster innovation cycles. Design strategies for dynamic manufacturing are increasingly being adopted. These advances have a fundamental impact on industrial systems at component as well as architectural level. 

As a consequence of the changing operational requirements, the methods used for protection of industrial systems must be revisited and strengthened. This for example includes access control, which is one of the fundamental cyber­security mechanisms that is hugely affected by current developments within IACS. The methods currently used are static and coarse-grained and therefore not well suited for dynamic and flexible industrial systems. A transition in security model is required, from implicit trust towards zero-trust, supporting dynamic and fine-grained access control. 

This PhD thesis discusses access control for IACS in the age of Industry 4.0, focusing on dynamic and flexible manufacturing systems. The solutions pre­sented are applicable at machine-to-machine as well as human-to-machine in­teractions, using a zero-trust strategy. An investigation of the current state of practice for industrial access control is provided as a starting point for the work. Dynamic systems require equally dynamic access control policies, why several approaches on how dynamic access control can be achieved in indus­trial systems are developed and evaluated, covering strategies for policy for­mulations as well as mechanisms for authorization enforcement. 

Abstract [sv]

Vi tar för givet att det alltid ska finnas el, rent dricksvatten, mat och läkemedel. Många av våra grundläggande behov tillgodoses tack vare produkter som är beroende av industriella styrsystem. Att skyddas dessa system ifrån störningar är följaktligen ytterst viktigt. 

Vi är mitt i ett teknikskifte som brukar kallas "Industri 4.0" och som innebär att framtidens industriella system kommer skilja sig avsevärt ifrån dagens. Förän­dringen drivs bland annat av nya krav och förväntningar, exempelvis på ko­rtare tid mellan ide och produktion, möjlighet att anpassa produktionen till snabba marknadsförändringar och tillverkning av individuellt anpassade pro­dukter. Flexibla och skalbara lösningar krävs för att kunna uppfylla dessa krav, till skillnad från dagens system som i allmänhet är utvecklade för massproduk­tion av en specifik produkt. 

Detta påverkar såväl hur produktionssystemen konstrueras som designen av varje ingående komponent. En konsekvens är att metoderna som används för att skydda dagens system måste anpassas och stärkas för att möta framtidens utmaningar. En grundläggande sådan säkerhetsfunktion är behörighetshanter­ing. Nuvarande behörighetshantering är inte tillräckligt flexibel och därmed dåligt anpassad till morgondagens dynamiska system. 

I denna doktorsavhandling undersöks behörighetshantering för framtidens industriella system, med fokus på de dynamiska produktionssystem som behövs för att uppfylla kraven kopplade till Industri 4.0. Med utgångspunkt från en enkätundersökning analyseras dagsläget. Förslag på flera olika tillvägagångssätt för dynamisk behörighetshantering presenteras och utvärderas, såväl med avseende på hur sådana regler kan formuleras som på hur de ska kunna upprätthållas. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen university, 2023. p. 222
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 391
Keywords
Cybersecurity, Industrial Automation and Control Systems, Industry 4.0, Access Control
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Systems Control Engineering
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64527 (URN)978-91-7485-616-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-12-08, Beta, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
ARRAYInSecTT
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 876038Knowledge Foundation, ARRAY
Available from: 2023-10-12 Created: 2023-10-12 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved

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Causevic, AidaHansson, Hans

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