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Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Extractive Probe Sampling for Biomass and Combustion Characterization
Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. (Future Energy Center)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5341-3656
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Biomass is characterized by highly variable properties. It can be converted to more valuable energy forms and products through a variety of conversion processes. This thesis focuses on addressing several important issues related to combustion and pulping.

Experimental investigations were carried out on a biomass-fired industrial fluidized-bed boiler. The observed combustion asymmetry was explained by an imbalance in the fuel feed. Increased levels of carbon monoxide were detected close to boiler walls which contribute significantly to the risk of wall corrosion.

Moreover, extensive literature analysis showed that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has a great potential to provide property information for heterogeneous feedstocks or products, and to directly monitor processes producing/processing biofuels in real-time. The developed NIRS-based models were able to predict characteristics such as heating value, ash content and glass content. A study focusing on the influence of different spectra acquisition parameters on lignin quantification was carried out. Spectral data acquired on moving woodchips were found to increase the representativeness of the spectral measurements leading to improvements in model performance.

The present thesis demonstrates the potential of developing NIRS-based soft-sensors for characterization of biomass properties. The on-line installation of such sensors in an industrial setting can enable feed-forward process control, diagnostics and optimization.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2017.
Serie
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 224
Nationell ämneskategori
Energisystem Kemiska processer
Forskningsämne
energi- och miljöteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35041ISBN: 978-91-7485-317-9 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-35041DiVA, id: diva2:1082869
Disputation
2017-04-26, Pi, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-20 Skapad: 2017-03-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-04-18Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Experimental investigation of part load operation of a full-scale biomass-fired fluidized bed boiler
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Experimental investigation of part load operation of a full-scale biomass-fired fluidized bed boiler
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(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35046 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-21 Skapad: 2017-03-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-11-30Bibliografiskt granskad
2. The experimental study of full-scale biomass-fired bubbling fluidized bed boiler
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The experimental study of full-scale biomass-fired bubbling fluidized bed boiler
2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, s. 643-647Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents experimental data concerning combustion characteristics of full-scale biomass-fired bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) steam boiler with a thermal output of 31 MW. The purpose of the experimental measurements is to show how the values of selected combustion parameters vary in reality depending on measurement position. Experimentation involves specifically a determination of combustion gas temperature and concentration of gas species i.e. O2, CO2, CO and NOX at different positions in the furnace and the flue gas trains. Character of results from the furnace indicates the intermediate stage of thermochemical reactions. Increased levels of CO close to the wall have been found, this may be indicating reducing atmosphere and thereby increased corrosion risk. Results from flue gas trains demonstrate that behavior there is related to the fluid dynamics and heat transfer, the temperature is too low for further combustion reactions. Results show great variations among measured values of all measurands depending on a distance along the line from the wall to the center of the boiler. The measurements from permanently installed fixed sensors are not giving value representing average conditions, but overall profiles can be correlated to online measurements from fixed sensors.

Nyckelord
Biomass combustion; steam boiler; fluidized bed; temperature measurements; flue gas concentration measurements.
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Forskningsämne
energi- och miljöteknik; energi- och miljöteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26844 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.1188 (DOI)000375936100148 ()2-s2.0-84922364736 (Scopus ID)
Konferens
The 6th International Conference on Applied Energy – ICAE2014, Taipei May 30 - June 2 2014
Tillgänglig från: 2014-12-05 Skapad: 2014-12-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-08-28Bibliografiskt granskad
3. The influence of different parameters on biomass gasification in circulating fluidized bed gasifiers
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The influence of different parameters on biomass gasification in circulating fluidized bed gasifiers
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 126, s. 110-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The mechanism of biomass gasification has been studied for decades. However, for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifiers, the impacts of different parameters on the gas quality and gasifiers performance have still not been fully investigated. In this paper, different CFB gasifiers have been analyzed by multivariate analysis statistical tools to identify the hidden interrelation between operating parameters and product gas quality, the most influencing input parameters and the optimum points for operation. The results show that equivalence ratio (ER), bed material, temperature, particle size and carbon content of the biomass are the input parameters influencing the output of the gasifier the most. Investigating among the input parameters with opposite impact on product gas quality, cases with optimal gas quality can result in high tar yield and low carbon conversion while low tar yield and high carbon conversion can result in product gas with low quality. However using Olivine as the bed material and setting ER value around 0.3, steam to biomass ratio to 0.7 and using biomass with 3 mm particle size and 9 wt% moisture content can result in optimal product gas with low tar yield.

Nationell ämneskategori
Kemiska processer
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32432 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2016.07.031 (DOI)000385326400011 ()2-s2.0-84982682364 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-04 Skapad: 2016-08-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-12-18Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in biomass energy conversion processes: A review
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in biomass energy conversion processes: A review
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied spectroscopy reviews (Softcover ed.), ISSN 0570-4928, E-ISSN 1520-569X, Vol. 52, nr 8, s. 675-728Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass used in energy conversion processes is typically characterized by high variability, making its utilization challenging. Therefore, there is a need for a fast and non-destructive method to determine feedstock/product properties and directly monitor process reactors. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique together with advanced data analysis methods offers a possible solution. This review focuses on the introduction of the NIRS method and its recent applications to physical, thermochemical, biochemical and physiochemical biomass conversion processes represented mainly by pelleting, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, as well as biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel production. NIRS has been proven to be a reliable and inexpensive method with a great potential for use in process optimization, advanced control, or product quality assurance.

Nyckelord
Biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biomass, chemometrics, near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, near infrared, NIR, instrumentation
Nationell ämneskategori
Analytisk kemi Energisystem Kemiska processer Bioenergi Bioprocessteknik
Forskningsämne
bioteknik/kemiteknik; energi- och miljöteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-34992 (URN)10.1080/05704928.2017.1289471 (DOI)000412218800001 ()2-s2.0-85029956089 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-03 Skapad: 2017-03-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-03-03Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Effect of wood chip moving velocity on NIR spectra acquisition and model calibration for lignin quantification
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect of wood chip moving velocity on NIR spectra acquisition and model calibration for lignin quantification
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(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35047 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-21 Skapad: 2017-03-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-11-30Bibliografiskt granskad
6. Utilization of Near Infrared (NIR) Spectrometry for Detection of Glass in the Waste-based Fuel
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Utilization of Near Infrared (NIR) Spectrometry for Detection of Glass in the Waste-based Fuel
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2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 734-741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the results of experimental measurements and multivariate statistical modeling concerning detection of soda-lime glass using near infrared (NIR) spectrometry technique. The purpose is to test if the glass is quantitatively detectable in a waste-based material and to assess what method of spectral data pretreatment is the most suitable in order to develop prediction models. The experiments were performed on six test samples containing a specific amount of glass distributed in background material. Pretreatment methods such as normalization and first and second derivatives were applied on the acquired absorbance spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in order to describe the relationship between pretreated data and the amount of glass in the test samples. Subsequently, principal component regression (PCR) was utilized for the development of prediction models. The results from the models show strong correlation between the pretreated data and the glass content. The most promising results were obtained from the model based on 1st derivative pretreatment when only absorbance spectral data from selected wavelengths are included. 

Nationell ämneskategori
Elektroteknik och elektronik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29321 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.502 (DOI)000361030001029 ()2-s2.0-84947065808 (Scopus ID)
Konferens
7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES
Tillgänglig från: 2015-10-15 Skapad: 2015-10-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-08-28Bibliografiskt granskad
7. Fast Determination of Fuel Properties in Solid Biofuel Mixtures by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fast Determination of Fuel Properties in Solid Biofuel Mixtures by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 1309-1317Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the characterization of highly variable biofuel properties such as moisture content, ash content and higher heating value by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Experiments were performed on different biofuel sample mixtures consisting of stem wood chips, forest residue chips, bark, sawdust, and peat. NIR scans were performed using a Fourier transform NIR instrument, and reference values were obtained according to standardized laboratory methods. Spectral data were pre-processed by Multiplicative scatter correction correcting light scattering and change in a path length for each sample. Multivariate calibration was carried out employing Partial least squares regression while absorbance values from full NIR spectral range (12,000–4000 cm-1), and reference values were used as inputs. It was demonstrated that different solid biofuel properties can be measured by means of NIR spectroscopy. The accuracy of the models is satisfactory for industrial implementation towards improved process control. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017
Nyckelord
Ash content; biofuels; higher heating value, moisture content, Near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS.
Nationell ämneskategori
Energisystem Analytisk kemi
Forskningsämne
energi- och miljöteknik; bioteknik/kemiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33988 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.476 (DOI)000404967901061 ()2-s2.0-85020707357 (Scopus ID)
Konferens
8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2016; Beijing; China; 8 October 2016 through 11 October 2016
Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-27 Skapad: 2016-11-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-08-28Bibliografiskt granskad

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