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On the causes and effects of specialization: A mathematical approach
Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation. (Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning)
2009 (engelsk)Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Division of labor and division of knowledge are so important andcommon in society today that it is almost impossible to imagine asociety where everyone knows the same things and perform the sametasks. This would be a society where everyone grows, or gathers, andprepares their own food, makes their own tools, builds their ownhouse, and so on.

Cultural evolution is the field of research that studies the creationand diffusion of ideas and societies. It is very uncommon for thesestudies to take into account the effects of specialization. Thisthesis will show that specialization is of great importance tocultural evolution.

The thesis is divided into three parts: one introduction and two papers. The introduction covers the mathematical models used byeconomists to study the relation between the market and division oflabor. The first paper is an interdisciplinary survey of the researchon division of labor and specialization, including both theoretic andempirical studies. The second paper is a mathematical model of howspecialization of knowledge (i.e. higher education) leads to socialstratification. The model is tested against statistical data fromseveral countries and found to be a good predictor of the differencesin income between people of high and low education.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Västerås: Mälardalens högskola , 2009.
Serie
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 103
Emneord [en]
Specialization, Division of labor, matematical model, social stratification
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Matematik/tillämpad matematik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-5865ISBN: 978-91-86135-26-3 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-5865DiVA, id: diva2:216876
Presentation
Wallenberglaboratoriet, Lilla Frescativägen 7, Stockholm (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-06-01 Laget: 2009-05-12 Sist oppdatert: 2009-06-01bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Temporal Discounting Leads to Social Stratification
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Temporal Discounting Leads to Social Stratification
(engelsk)Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Social stratification is present in all modern societies. Do income dif-ferences simply reflect inherited differences in individual abilities and re-sources? If not, why does not everyone choose strategies that lead to highincome? This paper shows that the psychological phenomenon known astemporal discounting will lead to differences in educational attainmentand therefore social stratification in any society where the demand forworkers with a higher level of education is higher than for those witha lower level. The model is used to predict income differences betweenpeople with and without college education in seven developed countries,based only on official statistics of the cost and length of college education.The model explains 93 percent of the variance, strongly suggesting thattemporal discounting is a major factor behind income differences.

Emneord
social stratification, mathematical model
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
matematik/tillämpad matematik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-5852 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-05-11 Laget: 2009-05-11 Sist oppdatert: 2013-01-24bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Theoretic and Empirical studies of Division of Labor and Specialization: An interdisciplinary survey
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Theoretic and Empirical studies of Division of Labor and Specialization: An interdisciplinary survey
(engelsk)Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The extensive division of labor in human societies is one of the aspects that make them unique. There are many areas which are influenced by this division. The most obvious one might be the economy, where division of labor yields much higher production. However, as we will show in this survey, a lot of other areas which affect society are influenced by division of labor, such as population size and density, technology, trade, accumulation of knowledge, social stratification, political organization, and institutions. Even the size of the family is argued to be linked to division of labor and specialization.This review will discuss how specialization evolved, including both theoretical and empirical studies from several disciplines. We will also study different kinds of specialization, as well as how and in which areas specialization has an influence.

Emneord
division of labor, specialization, survey
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
matematik/tillämpad matematik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-5864 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-05-12 Laget: 2009-05-12 Sist oppdatert: 2013-01-24bibliografisk kontrollert

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