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Defeating Jamming Using Outage Performance Aware Joint Power Allocation and Access Point Placement in Uplink Pairwise NOMA
Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-8109-1685
Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9589-6986
Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-6497-4099
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, E-ISSN 2644-125X, Vol. 2, s. 1957-1979Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, an uplink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) scenario using a mobile access point (AP) or an unmanned aerial vehicle in the presence of a jamming attack is considered. To mitigate the influence of the jamming attack, a joint power allocation and AP placement design is proposed. Accordingly, closed-form expressions of the overall outage probability (OOP) and the individual outage probability (TOP) considering imperfect channel state information for each of the source nodes the AP serves, are derived over Nakagami-m fading channels using dynamic decoding order and fixed pairwise power allocation. We conduct an investigation of the effect of different parameters such as power allocation, source node placements, AP placement, target rates, and jammer location on the OOP and the IOP performance. By adapting the power allocation and the AP placement to the jamming attack, the communication reliability can be increased significantly compared to neglecting the presence of the jammer or treating the jammer as noise. Since the malicious jammer and the AP have conflicting interests in terms of communication reliability, we formulate a non-cooperative game for the two players considering their positions and the power allocation of the NOMA nodes as their strategies and the OOP as utility function. We propose using hybrid simulated annealing - greedy algorithms to address the joint power allocation and AP placement problem for the cases of both a fixed and a mobile jammer. Finally, the Nash equilibrium points are obtained and then the UAV goes directly to this position and keeps staying there to save power consumption.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2021. Vol. 2, s. 1957-1979
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-55890DOI: 10.1109/OJCOMS.2021.3103540ISI: 000692134000002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85127267538OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-55890DiVA, id: diva2:1594898
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-09-16 Laget: 2021-09-16 Sist oppdatert: 2024-01-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Tailoring Pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access to the Requirements of Critical Cyber-Physical Systems
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Tailoring Pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access to the Requirements of Critical Cyber-Physical Systems
2021 (engelsk)Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Within the context of Industry 4.0, many devices have become more intelligent and connected, leading to challenges on how to meet the stringent requirements on latency and reliability in networks of critical cyber-physical systems. In particular, timely channel access and high reliability are of essence to guarantee real-time deadlines. To this end, time-division multiple-access (TDMA) schemes are often used in industrial applications to get contention-free access to the channel. Using pairwise non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) on top of such an existing TDMA scheme has recently emerged as a promising solution. With pairwise NOMA, two nodes are served simultaneously using the same time-frequency resources but with different power levels. To separate the signals, successive interference cancellation is used at the receiver. In addition, by adjusting the power allocation, pairwise NOMA can easily switch to TDMA by assigning zero power to one user, if and when needed. Due to this flexibility, pairwise NOMA can be integrated into existing wireless networks and schedulers with improved performance as a result. In particular, if pairwise NOMA could be tailored to the requirements of systems of collaborating cyber-physical systems, it would be possible to enhance performance in terms of latency and reliability, while still providing timely channel access to critical users using TDMA. This is the scope of the thesis work.

In order to evaluate the communication reliability for each user in the system as well as for the overall system, the individual outage probability (IOP) and the overall outage probability (OOP) are of essence, but have so far not been available for pairwise NOMA used on top of TDMA. In this thesis work, closed-form expressions for the IOP and the OOP of both uplink and downlink NOMA are derived – also in the presence of a mobile smart jammer. Using these performance metrics, insightful guidelines on the impact of some key parameters on the communication reliability such as power allocation, decoding order, node placements and so on are provided. It should be noted that the conclusions on node placement can be used for smart user pairing, but also for placement of access points (AP) or even mobile APs, using a UAV. Moreover, by formulating a non-cooperative game between a malicious smart mobile jammer and a friendly mobile AP serving two friendly sensor nodes simultaneously, Nash equilibrium points are obtained to reduce power consumption for the AP, while satisfying the communication reliability requirements. Using the derived expressions for OOP and IOP to select proper settings for pairwise NOMA, it is shown that NOMA can be tailored to ensure user fairness, provide timely channel access and high reliability, which is useful for enhancing performance of critical cyber-physical systems even in the presence of jamming.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Västerås: Mälardalen university, 2021
Serie
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 314
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-56282 (URN)978-91-7485-531-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2021-11-26, Delta (and virtually), Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:30 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-10-26 Laget: 2021-10-25 Sist oppdatert: 2021-11-05bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Using Outage Probability to Tailor Communication Protocols Suitable for Cyber-Physical Systems Operating in Confined Areas
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Using Outage Probability to Tailor Communication Protocols Suitable for Cyber-Physical Systems Operating in Confined Areas
2023 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Some types of Cyber-Physical System (CPS) applications found within e.g., quarrying, mining, harbors, and construction sites, operate within confined areas. To guarantee that communications between nodes in such systems operate smoothly, the adopted wireless communication protocols must meet stringent requirements, even in the presence of interference and/or jamming. This thesis work targets finding performance metrics suitable for designing and evaluating wireless networks when used for CPSs in confined areas. Given the shortage of spectrum and the increased risk of cyber-attacks experienced lately, the protocols must also be adjusted to perform well when subject to strong interference and/or adversary jamming. Hence, to be useful in practice, metrics that can be recalculated during runtime are needed, such that they can be used not only to propose, select and tailor the communication protocols to fulfill the stringent CPS requirements but also to optimize their performance during runtime. The literature survey conducted in this thesis shows that a reliability metric in terms of thresholding the so-called outage probability is valuable for all design steps as well as for continuously optimizing the communications. However, since the outage probability is defined as the probability that an individual wireless link will experience outage, it does not address the reliability of the entire network within the confined area. The thesis work shows that it is possible to consider overall outage probabilities and evaluates the probability of outage for each individual packet from a specific source node to a final destination, including all possible links in the network. This way, it is possible to consider the overall outage for all packets within the network in the confined area. Outage probability measures are defined for different system models and closed-form expressions for the outage are derived for the Individual Outage Probability (IOP), the Overall Outage Probability (OOP), the IOP for one packet (IOPP), and the OOP for all packets (OOPP), with and without the presence of attackers and/or strong interference. These reliability metrics can be adopted to analyze the effects of a wide range of parameters such as power allocation, node positions, the use of relay nodes or retransmissions, etc. on the individual link, individual source packet, and overall network reliability. The analysis thereby makes it possible to provide a set of general guidelines for tailoring the protocols and enhance the communication reliability of all legitimate nodes in the CPS. Having the closed-form expressions readily available also enables recalculating and adjusting parameters faster in order to find the best solution to improve the communication reliability during runtime. The thesis work demonstrates how outage probability can be used to enhance system performance in several example scenarios, including a multiple access scheme, pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA), mobile access points and/or relay nodes. The outage analysis can thereby be applied to an existing CPS application to enhance reliability, robustness, and flexibility while maintaining a low delay.

Abstract [sv]

Vissa typer av trådlösa närverk kopplar samman maskiner och människor som samarbetar inom ett begränsat område, exempelvis ett stenbrott, en gruva, en hamn eller en byggarbetsplats. För att garantera att kommunikationen mellan olika noder i sådana system fungerar smidigt, måste de trådlösa kommunikationsprotokollen leva upp till stränga krav, även då olika typer av störningar inträffar. Arbetet i den här doktorsavhandlingen syftar till att hitta prestandamått som är lämpliga både för att designa och för att utvärdera trådlösa nätverk som används för att koppla samman olika aktörer som samarbetar inom avgränsade områden. Med tanke på bristen på spektrum och den ökade risken för cyberattacker som uppmärksammats den senaste tiden, behöver kommunikationsprotokollen också anpassas för att prestera bra när de utsätts för kraftiga störningar och/eller cyberattacker. För att vara användbara i praktiken krävs mått som kan utvärderas under körning, så att de inte bara kan användas för att utveckla, välja eller skräddarsy kommunikationsprotokollen, utan också för att optimera deras prestanda direkt under körning.Litteraturundersökningen som genomförts i denna avhandling visar att ett tillförlitlighetsmått som använder tröskelvärden för den så kallade” outage probability” (sannolikheten för avbrott i den trådlösa kommunikationen) är värdefullt för att utveckla såväl som för att kontinuerligt optimera kommunikationsprotokoll. Problemet är att sannolikheten för avbrott definieras som sannolikheten att en enskild trådlös länk kommer att drabbas av ett avbrott. Det inbegriper alltså inte tillförlitligheten för hela nätverket inom det begränsade området. Avhandlingen visar att det är möjligt att formulera övergripande prestandamått som kan användas för att utvärdera sannolikheten för avbrott för varje enskilt paket från en specifik källa till en specifik slutdestination även då paketet tillåts använda alla tillgängliga länkar i nätverket. På så sätt är det möjligt att utvärdera den totala sannolikheten för avbrott i kommunikationen för alla paket som ska kommuniceras inom hela nätverket. Sannolikhetsmåttet för avbrott i kommunikationen kan därmed definieras för olika systemmodeller och uttryckas i sluten form för avbrott på en specifik länk, ett specifikt paket, alla länkar eller alla paket i nätverket, och detta både med och utan närvaron av en angripare och/eller starka störningar. Dessa tillförlitlighetsmått kan således användas för att analysera effekterna av flera viktiga parametrar såsom fördelning av signalstyrka mellan noderna, nodernas relativa positioner, användningen av särskilda relänoder eller av omsändningar. Analysen gör det därigenom möjligt att tillhandahålla en uppsättning allmänna riktlinjer för att skräddarsy kommunikationsprotokollen och förbättra kommunikationssäkerheten för alla legitima noder i nätverket. Att ha väldefinierade matematiska uttryck för tillförlitlighetsmåtten möjliggör också omräkning och justering av parametrar snabbare och därmed hitta den bästa lösningen för att förbättra kommunikationens tillförlitlighet direkt under körning. Avhandlingsarbetet visar hur sannolikheten för avbrott kan användas för att förbättra systemets prestanda i flera exempelscenarier, inklusive system som tillåter att flera användare kommunicerar samtidigt, eller de som har mobila accesspunkter och/eller relänoder. Att analysera sannolikheten för avbrott i kommunikationen kan därmed appliceras på ett befintligt kommunikationssystem för att förbättra tillförlitligheten, robustheten och flexibiliteten samtidigt som en låg fördröjning kan bibehållas.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2023
Serie
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 385
Emneord
Outage probability, pairwise NOMA, physical layer security
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64195 (URN)978-91-7485-608-8 (ISBN)
Disputas
2023-10-13, Paros, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 13:30 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Prosjekter
FORASerendipity
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-09-07 Laget: 2023-09-06 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-22bibliografisk kontrollert

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