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Schwede, S., Thorin, E., Lindmark, J., Klintenberg, P., Jääskelainen, A., Suhonen, A., . . . Hakalehto, E. (2017). Using slaughterhouse waste in a biochemical-based biorefinery – results from pilot scale tests. Environmental technology, 1275-1284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using slaughterhouse waste in a biochemical-based biorefinery – results from pilot scale tests
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2017 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, p. 1275-1284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel biorefinery concept was piloted using protein-rich slaughterhouse waste, chicken manureand straw as feedstocks. The basic idea was to provide a proof of concept for the production ofplatform chemicals and biofuels from organic waste materials at non-septic conditions. Thedesired biochemical routes were 2,3-butanediol and acetone–butanol fermentation. The resultsshowed that hydrolysis resulted only in low amounts of easily degradable carbohydrates.However, amino acids released from the protein-rich slaughterhouse waste were utilized andfermented by the bacteria in the process. Product formation was directed towards acidogeniccompounds rather than solventogenic products due to increasing pH-value affected by ammoniarelease during amino acid fermentation. Hence, the process was not effective for 2,3-butanediolproduction, whereas butyrate, propionate,γ-aminobutyrate and valerate were predominantlyproduced. This offered fast means for converting tedious protein-rich waste mixtures intoutilizable chemical goods. Furthermore, the residual liquid from the bioreactor showedsignificantly higher biogas production potential than the corresponding substrates. Thecombination of the biorefinery approach to produce chemicals and biofuels with anaerobicdigestion of the residues to recover energy in form of methane and nutrients that can beutilized for animal feed production could be a feasible concept for organic waste utilization.

Keywords
Platform chemicals; biofuels; anaerobic digestion; fermentation; organic waste
National Category
Bioprocess Technology
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33516 (URN)10.1080/09593330.2016.1225128 (DOI)000398961100008 ()27575339 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84984876888 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ABOWE
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 2007CB163PO02
Available from: 2016-11-09 Created: 2016-11-09 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Hakalehto, E., Heitto, A., Andersson, H., Lindmark, J., Jansson, J., Reijonen, T., . . . Thorin, E. (2016). Some remarks on processing of slaughterhouse wastes from ecological chicken abattoir and farm. In: Microbiological Industrial Hygiene: (pp. 271-293). Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Some remarks on processing of slaughterhouse wastes from ecological chicken abattoir and farm
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2016 (English)In: Microbiological Industrial Hygiene, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2016, p. 271-293Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the meat industries, it is always of high importance to follow up the zoonotic and other hazardous micro-organisms, and to prevent their risky distribution, emission and dissemination. Besides proper hygiene control, as well as organized exploitation of the side streams and slaughterhouse wastes helps in the hygienization of the biomasses, processes, and the entire industry. During this experimentation it turned out that it was possible to produce gases and chemical goods, not only from the carboxylates, but also from the more tedious protein and lipid containing wastes. Moreover, these promising results were obtained from a substrate mix with manure and wood chips. These results implied to the high versatility and flexibility of the bioprocess during Pilot A tests within the European Union Baltic Sea region project ABOWE. In Sweden these tests were carried out using the combined wastes from the ecological chicken farm and abattoir as the raw materials. This is a report of the practical set up during intensive experimentation conducted jointly by the Swedish and Finnish personnel. The report of the runs in Sweden is presented also in the public report of the European Union funded project (www.abowe.eu).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36153 (URN)2-s2.0-85022000959 (Scopus ID)9781634852937 (ISBN)9781634852685 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-07-27 Created: 2017-07-27 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Thorin, E., Schwede, S., Lindmark, J. & Ahrens, T. (2015). DRY DIGESTION PILOT TESTS USING RESIDUAL MUNICIPAL WASTE AS SUBSTRATE. In: Raffaello Cossu et al (Ed.), Sardinia 2015: . Paper presented at 15th international waste manamgement and landfill symposium. Padova: CISA publisher
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DRY DIGESTION PILOT TESTS USING RESIDUAL MUNICIPAL WASTE AS SUBSTRATE
2015 (English)In: Sardinia 2015 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu et al, Padova: CISA publisher , 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A pilot plug-flow dry digestion process was tested for production of biogas from the fine fraction of the residual municipal solid waste after source sorting of the organic fraction of the waste. The residual waste is complex, containing a mix of hard and soft plastic, paper, metal, glass, and a varying amount of organic material. The utilization as a substrate for biogas production is therefore challenging. The purpose of the pilot tests was to determine if it is technically feasible to produce biogas from this waste. The plant was operated under thermophilic conditions for almost three months. In parallel also a garage fermentation batch pilot plant was tested with the same substrate. The results from the tests are promising concerning the biogas production even if there are indications that the process in the plug-flow reactor was operated in so called inhibited steady state at the higher loading rates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Padova: CISA publisher, 2015
Keywords
biogas, digestate, plug-flow, garage fermenter, metal content
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29352 (URN)9788862650212 (ISBN)
Conference
15th international waste manamgement and landfill symposium
Projects
ABOWE
Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2016-12-17Bibliographically approved
Odlare, M., Lindmark, J., Ericsson, A. & Pell, M. (2015). Use of organic wastes in agriculture. Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES. Energy Procedia, 2472-2476
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of organic wastes in agriculture
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, p. 2472-2476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the number of biogas plants and wastewater treatment plants continues to grow, there is an urgent need to find sustainable usage of the organic wastes produced in these facilities Recycling of organic wastes within agriculture can reduce the need for mineral fertilizer and restore organic carbon deficiency in the soil. The results from a 16-year long field experiment, where agricultural lands have been amended using sewage sludge and biogas residue is presented in this paper. Plant nutrients, organic contaminants and metals have been analyzed in order to evaluate the impact of the wastes on soil and crop quality. The results show that only small differences in plant uptake of metals and organic pollutants appear after 16 years. In addition, biogas residues performed well as a fertilizers, although not as well as mineral fertilizers.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29336 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.225 (DOI)000361030004018 ()2-s2.0-84947081256 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES
Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, J. (2014). Developing the anaerobic digestion process through technology integration. (Doctoral dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing the anaerobic digestion process through technology integration
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Process optimization is needed for the development and expansion of the biogas industry and to meet the ever growing demand for methane. This thesis explores process technologies for the development of the anaerobic digestion process and includes pre-treatments, studies on the effects of different mixing modes and evaluation of a water treatment technology.

Two pre-treatments were evaluated, mechanical and electroporation, for treatment of ley crop silage. Mechanical treatment included two milling machines designed for recycling of paper, Grubben deflaker and Krima disperser, and showed an increased biogas production of 59 % and 43 % respectively as well as a positive energy balance and economic results.. Electroporation increased the biogas production with 16 %, however, development is needed to increase its energy efficiency.

Digester mixing has an effect on the digestion result. The performed review and experiments show that the mixing demand increases with organic loading. Excessive mixing during process start up, instabilities and shock loads leads to increased volatile fatty acid concentrations and process inhibition. Reduction of mixing reduces the effects of process instabilities and periodical mixing with mixing breaks has been shown to be beneficial for biogas production.

A high temperature membrane filtration unit was evaluated at 70 °C, 90 °C and 110 °C to determine separation efficiencies, permeation speed when treating process water at a biogas plant.  Improved separation can increase the capacity of the substrate pre-processing and reduce process related problems. The results show a total solids separation of 60 %, and an increasing filtration speed with temperature with fluxes of between 113 and 464 L/ h m2. The substrate pre-processing could theoretically handle up to 29 % more substrate as a result.

Integration of these technologies in a biogas plant show that the pre-treatments studied exhibits a good performance when integrated and that mixing reduction has the potential to lower the process electricity demand by 23 % in the performed case study. However, even though the membrane filtration unit shows promising results it would demand a relatively high energy consumption and lead to limited benefits to a process already at it maximum organic loading.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2014
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 165
National Category
Bioenergy
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26081 (URN)978-91-7485-166-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-19, rum R2-025, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-10 Created: 2014-10-09 Last updated: 2014-11-03Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, J., Thorin, E., Bel Fdhila, R. & Dahlquist, E. (2014). Effects of mixing on the result of anaerobic digestion: Review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40, 1030-1047
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of mixing on the result of anaerobic digestion: Review
2014 (English)In: Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, Vol. 40, p. 1030-1047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mixing in an anaerobic digester keeps the solids in suspension and homogenizes the incoming feed with the active microbial community of the digester content. Experimental investigations have shown that the mixing mode and mixing intensity have direct effects on the biogas yield even though there are conflicting views on mixing design. This review analyzes and presents different methods to evaluate the mixing in a digester (chemical and radioactive tracers and laboratory analysis), tools for digester design (computational fluid dynamics and kinetic modeling) and current research on the effects of mixing on the anaerobic digestion process. Empirical data on experiments comparing different mixing regimes have been reviewed from both a technical and microbial standpoint with a focus both on full scale digesters and in lab-scale evaluations. Lower mixing intensity or uneven mixing in the anaerobic digestion process can be beneficial during the startup phase to allow for methanogenic biomass growth and alleviate process instability problems. Intermittent mixing has been shown to be able to yield a similar gas production as continuous mixing but with the possibility to reduce the maintenance and energy demands of the process. Problems often experienced with experimental design include the effect of mixing on the solids retention time, and measurement of steady state gas production because of startup instabilities. Further research should be aimed at studying the effects of mixing on a chemical and microbial level and on the different stages of anaerobic digestion (hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis). The focus should be on the effects of mixing on a multiple stage digestion process and also finding new methods to evaluate the effects of mixing in the one stage digestion process rather than evaluating a wider range of mixing modes, intensities and substrates.

Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, CFD modeling, Continuously stirred tank reactor, Intermittently mixed, Mixing, Tracer
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25908 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.182 (DOI)000345473600081 ()2-s2.0-84906834389 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2015-01-19Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, J., Lagerkvist, A., Nilsson, E., Carlsson, M., Thorin, E. & Dahlquist, E. (2014). Evaluating the effects of electroporation pre-treatment on the biogas yield from ley crop silage.. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 174(7), 2616-2625
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the effects of electroporation pre-treatment on the biogas yield from ley crop silage.
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2014 (English)In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 174, no 7, p. 2616-2625Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exploiting the full biogas potential of some types of biomass is challenging. The complex structures of lignocellulosic biomass are difficult to break down and thus require longer retention times for the nutrients to become biologically available. It is possible to increase the digestibility of the substrate by pre-treating the material before digestion. This paper explores a pre-treatment of ley crop silage that uses electrical fields, known as electroporation (EP). Different settings of the EP equipment were tested, and the results were analyzed using a batch digestion setup. The results show that it is possible to increase the biogas yield with 16 % by subjecting the substrates to 65 pulses at a field strength of 96 kV/cm corresponding to a total energy input of 259 Wh/kg volatile solid (VS). However, at 100 pulses, a lower field strength of 48 kV/cm and the same total energy input, no effects of the treatment were observed. The energy balance of the EP treatment suggests that the yield, in the form of methane, can be up to double the electrical energy input of the process.

Keywords
Electroporation, Pre-treatment, Ley crop silage, Anaerobic digestion, Pulsed electric field, Lignocellulose
National Category
Bioenergy
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26080 (URN)10.1007/s12010-014-1213-7 (DOI)000345331100023 ()25209554 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84916623709 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-10-09 Created: 2014-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Freidank, T., Drescher-Hartung, S., Behnsen, A., Lindmark, J., Thorin, E., Klintenberg, P. & Ahrens, T. (2014). MIDTERM OUTPUT REPORT – PILOT B IN SWEDEN. Mälardalens högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MIDTERM OUTPUT REPORT – PILOT B IN SWEDEN
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mälardalens högskola, 2014
Series
ABOWE projekt reports ; O4.5
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26887 (URN)
Projects
ABOWE
Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2016-12-18Bibliographically approved
Thorin, E., Lindmark, J., Schwede, S., Freidank, T., Drescher-Hartung, S., Daukšys, V. & Ahrens, T. (2014). POSSIBILITES FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE DRY DIGESTION PROCESS.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>POSSIBILITES FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE DRY DIGESTION PROCESS
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Series
ABOWE projekt reports ; O4.6
National Category
Bioenergy
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26890 (URN)
Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2015-01-08Bibliographically approved
Thorin, E., Nordlander, E., Lindmark, J., Schwede, S., Jansson, J., Hakalehto, E., . . . Den Boer, E. (2014). Possibilites for Optimization of Biorefinery process.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibilites for Optimization of Biorefinery process
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Series
ABOWE project reports ; O3.8
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26894 (URN)
Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2017-11-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8268-1967

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