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Houtan, Bahar
Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Houtan, B. (2024). Configuration and Timing Analysis of TSN-based Distributed Embedded Systems. (Doctoral dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuration and Timing Analysis of TSN-based Distributed Embedded Systems
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The set of IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards is an emerging candidate for backbone communication in modern applications of real-time distributed embedded systems. TSN provides various traffic shaping mechanisms that aim at managing the timing requirements of traffic. Emerging applications of these systems, particularly in the automotive domain, often run complex distributed software that requires low-latency and high-bandwidth communication across multiple onboard electronic control units. Using TSN in these systems introduces multiple challenges. Specifically, the developers of these systems face a lack of development techniques and tools, as TSN standards only offer general recommendations for the use of its features and mechanisms. There is an urgent need for development techniques, tools, and methods to assist the developers in effectively leveraging the features outlined in TSN standards. In this thesis, we identify and address several challenges encountered in the development of TSN-based distributed embedded systems, particularly focusing on the stages of system and software modeling, network configuration, and timing analysis. The overall goal of this thesis is to support the development of these systems in the aforementioned stages while considering the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of all traffic classes in TSN. We present techniques to facilitate the system and software modeling of TSN-based distributed embedded systems. These techniques enable performing timing analysis in the early stages of system and software development. In the stage of network configuration, we propose techniques for managing the configuration complexity and supporting the automatic configuration of mechanisms in TSN. The proposed configuration techniques consider achieving acceptable QoS in various traffic classes. In the stage of timing analysis, we address the challenges of incorporating various TSN traffic classes and mechanisms by extending the existing timing analyses. The results indicate that the proposed techniques effectively facilitate the system and software modeling, network configuration, and timing analysis of TSN-based distributed embedded systems.

Abstract [sv]

IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) är en framväxande kommunikationsteknik för moderna tillämpningar inom distribuerade inbyggda realtidssystem. TSN definerar olika mekanismer för trafikomformning som syftar till att ge flexibilitet i hur fördröjningar och bandbredd fördelas mellan olika användare. Nya tillämpningar av distribuerade inbyggda system i realtid har ofta mycket komplex distribuerad programvara som kräver kommunikation med låg latens och hög bandbredd över flera enheter (ECU I automotiv system). Att anpassa sig till TSN för att utveckla sådana system innebär många utmaningar. Dessutom finns det en brist på stödtekniker för utvecklare eftersom TSN-standarder endast ger generaliserade rekommendationer för tillämpningen av dess mekanismer. Därför finns det ett behov av tekniker och metoder för att stödja utvecklare att använda tillgängliga funktioner i TSN-standarderna. I den här avhandlingen angriper vi några av utmaningarna i utvecklingsstadierna av TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system som är modellering, konfiguration av nätverk och tidsanalys. Målet med avhandlingen är att stödja utvecklingen av TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system i dessastadier, samtidigt som man tar hänsyn till Quality of Service (QoS) krav inom alla trafikklasser i TSN. Vi tillhandahåller tekniker för att underlätta system- och mjukvarumodellering av TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system som ger ett verktyg för utvecklare att designa sina system i tidiga stadier av systemutveckling. Inom konfiguration av nätverk föreslår vi tekniker för att hantera komplexiteten och den automatiska konfigurationen av TSN-formningsmekanismer. Under tiden tar vi hänsyn till att nå en acceptabel QoS i olika trafikklasser. Inom tidsanalysen tar vi itu med utmaningarna med att införliva olika TSN-trafikklasser och mekanismer genom att utöka de befintliga tidsanalysmetoderna. Genom de tre bidragna tillvägagångssätten underlättar våra resultat processen att utveckla TSN-baserade distribuerade inbyggda system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2024. p. 259
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 402
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65958 (URN)978-91-7485-634-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-03-12, Gamma och via Zoom, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2024-02-08 Created: 2024-02-07 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Aybek, M. O., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M., Lundbäck, J. & Mubeen, S. (2023). End-to-end Timing Modeling and Analysis of TSN in Component-Based Vehicular Software. In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC: . Paper presented at Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2023 (pp. 126-135). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-to-end Timing Modeling and Analysis of TSN in Component-Based Vehicular Software
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2023 (English)In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 126-135Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present an end-to-end timing model to capture timing information from software architectures of distributed embedded systems that use network communication based on the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards. Such a model is required as an input to perform end-to-end timing analysis of these systems. Furthermore, we present a methodology that aims at automated extraction of instances of the end-to-end timing model from component-based software architectures of the systems and the TSN network configurations. As a proof of concept, we implement the proposed end-to-end timing model and the extraction methodology in the Rubus Component Model (RCM) and its tool chain Rubus-ICE that are used in the vehicle industry. We demonstrate the usability of the proposed model and methodology by modeling a vehicular industrial use case and performing its timing analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Embedded systems, Network architecture, Software architecture, Timing circuits, Automated extraction, Component based, Component-based software architecture, Distributed embedded system, End to end, Modelling and analysis, Network communications, Timing Analysis, Timing information, Timing modeling, Extraction
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64173 (URN)10.1109/ISORC58943.2023.00025 (DOI)001044268900013 ()2-s2.0-85168757094 (Scopus ID)9798350339024 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2023
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2023). Supporting end-to-end data propagation delay analysis for TSN-based distributed vehicular embedded systems. Journal of systems architecture, 141, Article ID 102911.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting end-to-end data propagation delay analysis for TSN-based distributed vehicular embedded systems
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2023 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 141, article id 102911Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we identify that the existing end-to-end data propagation delay analysis for distributed embedded systems can calculate pessimistic (over-estimated) analysis results when the nodes are synchronized. This is particularly the case of the Scheduled Traffic (ST) class in Time-sensitive Networking (TSN), which is scheduled offline according to the IEEE 802.1Qbv standard and the nodes are synchronized according to the IEEE 802.1AS standard. We present a comprehensive system model for distributed embedded systems that incorporates all of the above mentioned aspect as well as all traffic classes in TSN. We extend the analysis to support both synchronization and non-synchronization among the ECUs as well as offline schedules on the networks. The extended analysis can now be used to analyze all traffic classes in TSN when the nodes are synchronized without introducing any pessimism in the analysis results. We evaluate the proposed model and the extended analysis on a vehicular industrial use case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Distributed embedded systems, Real-time systems, Time-sensitive networking, Data communication systems, Data flow analysis, Data transfer, Embedded systems, IEEE Standards, Interactive computer systems, Real time systems, Data propagation, Delay analysis, Distributed embedded system, End to end, Extended analysis, Offline, Propagation delays, Real - Time system, Traffic class, Synchronization
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63666 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2023.102911 (DOI)001024619100001 ()2-s2.0-85162169933 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-28 Created: 2023-06-28 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Aybek, M. O., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2022). End-to-end Timing Model Extraction from TSN-Aware Distributed Vehicle Software. In: Proc. - Euromicro Conf. Softw. Eng. Adv. Appl., SEAA: . Paper presented at Proceedings - 48th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2022 (pp. 366-369). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-to-end Timing Model Extraction from TSN-Aware Distributed Vehicle Software
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2022 (English)In: Proc. - Euromicro Conf. Softw. Eng. Adv. Appl., SEAA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 366-369Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Extraction of end-to-end timing information from software architectures of vehicular systems to support their timing analysis is a daunting challenge. To address this challenge, this paper presents a systematic method to extract this information from vehicular software architectures that can be distributed over several electronic control units connected by Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) networks. As a proof of concept, the proposed extraction method is applied to an industrial component model, namely the Rubus Component Model (RCM), and its toolchain. Furthermore, the usability of the proposed method is demonstrated in an industrial use case from the vehicular domain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
Network architecture, Software architecture, Timing circuits, Component modeling, Electronics control unit, End to end, Model extraction, Proof of concept, Systematic method, Timing Analysis, Timing information, Timing modeling, Vehicular systems, Extraction
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62530 (URN)10.1109/SEAA56994.2022.00064 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147696076 (Scopus ID)9781665461528 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings - 48th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2022
Available from: 2023-05-24 Created: 2023-05-24 Last updated: 2024-01-24Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Bergström, A., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2021). An Automated Configuration Framework for TSN Networks. In: 22nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT'21) ICIT 2021: . Paper presented at 22nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT'21) ICIT 2021, 10 Mar 2021, Valencia, Spain (pp. 771-778).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Automated Configuration Framework for TSN Networks
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2021 (English)In: 22nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT'21) ICIT 2021, 2021, p. 771-778Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Designing and simulating large networks, based on the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards, require complex and demanding configuration at the design and pre-simulation phases. The existing configuration and simulation frameworks support only the manual configuration of TSN networks. This hampers the applicability of these frameworks to large-sized TSN networks, especially in complex industrial embedded system applications. This paper proposes a modular framework to automate offline scheduling in TSN networks to facilitate the design time and pre-simulation automated network configurations as well as interpretation of the simulations. To demonstrate and evaluate the applicability of the proposed framework, a large TSN network is automatically configured and its performance is evaluated by measuring end-to-end delays of time-critical flows in a state-of-the-art simulation framework, namely NeSTiNg.

Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ISSN 2643-2978
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-53948 (URN)10.1109/ICIT46573.2021.9453628 (DOI)000687856000119 ()2-s2.0-85112508272 (Scopus ID)
Conference
22nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT'21) ICIT 2021, 10 Mar 2021, Valencia, Spain
Projects
DESTINE: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software Utilizing Time Sensitive Networking
Available from: 2021-05-24 Created: 2021-05-24 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B. (2021). Configuring and Analysing TSN Networks Considering Low-priority Traffic. (Licentiate dissertation). Mälardalen university
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuring and Analysing TSN Networks Considering Low-priority Traffic
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards offer a promising solution to deal with the challenge of supporting high-bandwidth, low-latency, and predictable communication in distributed embedded systems. Although TSN provides a gate mechanism to support the low-jitter transmission of high-priority time-triggered traffic, it also brings complexity to the network design as the configuration of such mechanism together with support for low-priority transmission is non-trivial. Moreover, the combination of the gate mechanism and the Credit-based Shaper (CBS) mechanism in TSN deals with many configuration parameters, hence finding the most suitable configuration is complex. To avoid this complexity, the Best-effort (BE) class is sometimes used as an alternative channel to the classes that undergo the CBS mechanism, through which the real-time traffic without strict deadlines is transmitted with a minimum level of Quality of Service (QoS). On the other hand, the end stations that operate based on the legacy communication standards might not support the TSN's traffic shaping mechanisms, hence the designers need to assign the legacy traffic to use the BE class in a TSN network. To the extent of our knowledge, there is no implicit mechanism to support the QoS of BE in a TSN network. Hence, utilizing BE as an alternative to other classes must be guaranteed in terms of meeting the timing requirements, i.e., response times and end-to-end delays. Therefore, the work in this thesis aims at developing techniques and solutions to support the QoS of the lower-priority classes in TSN. In this regard, this work improves the scheduling solutions of high-priority time-triggered traffic to reduce the latency of BE traffic and develops techniques to verify the timing properties of BE traffic considering the impact of all other traffic classes in TSN. Furthermore, the work in this thesis extends the existing end-to-end data-propagation delay analysis for distributed real-time systems based on TSN networks. Finally, the applicability of the proposed techniques is verified and demonstrated by automotive application use cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mälardalen university, 2021. p. 140
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 316
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-56349 (URN)978-91-7485-536-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2021-12-16, Delta and Zoom, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2021-11-09 Created: 2021-11-09 Last updated: 2021-11-25Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M., Afshar, S. & Mubeen, S. (2021). Schedulability Analysis of Best-Effort Traffic in TSN Networks. In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA: . Paper presented at 26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2021, 7 September 2021 through 10 September 2021. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Schedulability Analysis of Best-Effort Traffic in TSN Networks
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2021 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a schedulability analysis for the Best-Effort (BE) traffic class within Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) networks. The presented analysis considers several features in the TSN standards, including the Credit-Based Shaper (CBS), the Time-Aware Shaper (TAS), and the frame preemption. Although the BE class in TSN is primarily used for the traffic with no strict timing requirements, some industrial applications prefer to utilize this class for the non-hard real-time traffic instead of classes that use the CBS. The reason mainly lies in the fact that the complexity of TSN configuration becomes significantly high when the time-triggered traffic via the TAS and other classes via the CBS are used altogether. We demonstrate the applicability of the presented analysis on a vehicular application use case. We show that a network designer can get information on the schedulability of the BE traffic, based on which the network configuration can be further refined with respect to the application requirements. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021
Keywords
Electric circuit breakers, Best-effort, Best-Effort Traffic, Hard real-time, Hard-real-time, Realtime traffic, Schedulability analysis, Time triggered, Timing requirements, Traffic class, Vehicular applications, Real time systems
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-56348 (URN)10.1109/ETFA45728.2021.9613511 (DOI)000766992600161 ()2-s2.0-85122932892 (Scopus ID)9781728129891 (ISBN)
Conference
26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2021, 7 September 2021 through 10 September 2021
Available from: 2021-11-09 Created: 2021-11-09 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2021). Supporting End-to-end Data-propagation Delay Analysis for TSN Networks. Västerås: Mälardalen Real-Time Research Centre, Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting End-to-end Data-propagation Delay Analysis for TSN Networks
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2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

End-to-end data-propagation delay analysis allows verification of important timing constraints, such as age and reaction, that areoften specified on chains of tasks and messages in real-time systems.We identify that the existing analysis does not support distributed taskchains that include the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) messages. Tothis end, this paper extends the existing analysis to allow the end-to-endtiming analysis of distributed task chains that include TSN messages.The extended analysis supports all types of traffic in TSN, includingthe Scheduled Traffic (ST), Audio Video Bridging (AVB), and BestEffort (BE) traffic. Furthermore, the extended analysis accounts for thesynchronization among the end stations that are connected via TSN.The applicability of the analysis is demonstrated using an automotiveapplication case study. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen Real-Time Research Centre, Mälardalen University, 2021
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-56547 (URN)MDH-MRTC-339/2021-1-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2021-11-18 Created: 2021-11-18 Last updated: 2021-12-07Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2021). Synthesising Schedules to Improve QoS of Best-effort Traffic in TSN Networks. In: 29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS'21) RTNS 2021: . Paper presented at 29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS'21) RTNS 2021, 07 Apr 2021, Nantes , France (pp. 68-77).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesising Schedules to Improve QoS of Best-effort Traffic in TSN Networks
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2021 (English)In: 29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS'21) RTNS 2021, 2021, p. 68-77Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards' amendment 802.1Qbv provides real-time guarantees for Scheduled Traffic (ST) streams by the Time Aware Shaper (TAS) mechanism. In this paper, we develop offline schedule optimization objective functions to configure the TAS for ST streams, which can be effective to achieve a high Quality of Service (QoS) of lower priority Best-Effort (BE) traffic. This becomes useful if real-time streams from legacy protocols are configured to be carried by the BE class or if the BE class is used for value-added (but non-critical) services. We present three alternative objective functions, namely Maximization, Sparse and Evenly Sparse, followed by a set of constraints on ST streams. Based on simulated stream traces in OMNeT++/INET TSN NeSTiNg simulator, we compare our proposed schemes with a most commonly applied objective function in terms of overall maximum end-to-end delay and deadline misses of BE streams. The results confirm that changing the schedule synthesis objective to our proposed schemes ensures timely delivery and lower end-to-end delays in BE streams.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-53964 (URN)10.1145/3453417.3453423 (DOI)000933139900007 ()2-s2.0-85111981322 (Scopus ID)9781450390019 (ISBN)
Conference
29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS'21) RTNS 2021, 07 Apr 2021, Nantes , France
Projects
DESTINE: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software Utilizing Time Sensitive Networking
Available from: 2021-05-28 Created: 2021-05-28 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2019). Developing Predictable Vehicular Embedded Systems Utilizing Time-Sensitive Networking–A Research Plan. In: 15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW'19) SNCNW 2019: . Paper presented at 15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW'19) SNCNW 2019, 04 Jun 2019, Luleå, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing Predictable Vehicular Embedded Systems Utilizing Time-Sensitive Networking–A Research Plan
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2019 (English)In: 15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW'19) SNCNW 2019, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-53933 (URN)
Conference
15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW'19) SNCNW 2019, 04 Jun 2019, Luleå, Sweden
Projects
XPRES - Excellence in Production ResearchDESTINE: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software Utilizing Time Sensitive Networking
Available from: 2021-04-22 Created: 2021-04-22 Last updated: 2021-12-15Bibliographically approved
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