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Toivanen, Susanna, Professor
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Aronsson, V., Toivanen, S., Leineweber, C. & Nyberg, A. (2019). Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations?: Evidence from a Swedish national cohort. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 47(3), 310-317
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations?: Evidence from a Swedish national cohort
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 310-317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n = 4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results: Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs. Conclusions: HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Human service occupations, psychosocial work environment, organizational resources, burnout, sickness absence, self-rated health, SLOSH
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43514 (URN)10.1177/1403494818812638 (DOI)000466373100004 ()30486752 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059680394 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-11-15
Bernhard-Oettel, C., Bergman, L., Leineweber, C. & Toivanen, S. (2019). Flourish, fight or flight: Health and well-being in self-employment over time-associations with business success. In: : . Paper presented at 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, May 29-June 1 2019, Turin, Italy (pp. 207-207).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flourish, fight or flight: Health and well-being in self-employment over time-associations with business success
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Around 9% of the working population in Sweden consists of self-employed business owners, but a considerable amount of them struggle to consolidate or expand their businesses. Among the factors predicting business success the decisive role of long-term health of business owners has been acknowledged only recently, but longitudinal studies testing this assumption are scarce. Based on the conservation of resources theory, good health can be seen as a resource that helps business owners to tackle high workloads and make business succeed.Design: Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey is used. Starting in 2012, N= 554 self-employed have answered three or more times in the biannual data collection. Latent growth curve modelling is employed to study general and mental health trajectories and their associations with business survival over time.Results: Preliminary descriptive analyses on biannual changes suggest that roughly one in ten self-employed leaves self-employment at follow-up. Job demands and emotional exhaustion are higher among those who leave compared to those who remain in business. After integrating new data collected in 2018, growth curve analyses are run over the whole longitudinal sample, and associations of health trajectories to business survival will be tested.Limitations: Data is collected with questionnaires, and business success is operationalized as business survival only.

National Category
Social Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46079 (URN)
Conference
19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, May 29-June 1 2019, Turin, Italy
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Toivanen, S., Härter Griep, R., Mellner, C., Nordenmark, M., Vinberg, S. & Eloranta, S. (2019). Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study. Small Business Economics, 53(2 SI), 343-354
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study
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2019 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, no 2 SI, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Analysing Swedish population register data, the aim of the present study is to investigate differences in acute cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of stroke and myocardial infarction incidence between self-employed individuals and paid employees and to study whether the associations vary by gender or across industrial sectors. A cohort of nearly 4.8 million employed individuals (6.7% self-employed in 2003) is followed-up for hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction (2004–2008). Self-employed individuals are defined as sole proprietors and limited liability company owners according to legal type of their enterprise. Negative binomial regression models are applied to compare hospitalization rates between the self-employed and paid employees, adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic confounders. Two- and three-way interaction are tested between occupational group, industrial sector, and gender. Limited liability company owners have significantly lower hospitalization for myocardial infarction than paid employees. Regarding two-way interaction, sole proprietors have higher myocardial infarction hospitalization in trade, transport and communication, and lower in agriculture, forestry, and fishing than paid employees. Limited liability company owners have lower hospitalization rate for myocardial infarction than employees in several industries. The results highlight the importance of enterprise legal type and industrial sector for CVD among self-employed individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2019
Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, Hospitalization, Self-employment, Sweden
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39052 (URN)10.1007/s11187-018-0051-3 (DOI)000482385700003 ()2-s2.0-85045440601 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-23 Created: 2018-04-23 Last updated: 2019-09-12
Mellner, C., Peters, P. & Toivanen, S. (2019). Individual Perceptions of Boundary Control Mitigate the Effect of (in) Congruence Between Workers’ Preferred Work/Non-Work Boundaries and their Enacted Boundary Management on Work-Life Conflict. In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology: . Paper presented at Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society (pp. 693-694).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual Perceptions of Boundary Control Mitigate the Effect of (in) Congruence Between Workers’ Preferred Work/Non-Work Boundaries and their Enacted Boundary Management on Work-Life Conflict
2019 (English)In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2019, p. 693-694Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Rapid development of boundary-transcending ICTs have led to more flexible forms of work organization, marking a fundamental shift in the flexibility and permeability of employees’ work-nonwork boundaries. This study investigates the inter-relationships between employees’ boundary management types, representing boundary (in)congruence between their preferred and enacted boundary management, and work-life conflict, and the potential moderating role of perceived boundary control herein.

Design/Methodology: Data comprised 3,154 Swedish professional workers in different occupations within both the public and private sector. Correlations, t-tests, Chi square tests and univariate general linear model analyses (ANCOVA) were performed.

Findings: Enacted integration as well as boundary incongruence were both positively associated with work-life-conflict. Moreover, incongruence accompanied by a high degree of enacted integration increased work-life conflict. Finally, boundary control mitigated work-life conflict. This was especially the case among employees preferring segmentation but enacting integration, i.e., boundary incongruence, but also among employees both preferring and enacting integration, i.e., boundary congruence.

Practical implications: This study provides new and valuable knowledge on different boundary management types, reflecting boundary (in)congruence, that are associated with increased work-life conflict depending on the specific type of (in)congruence in question, and the role of boundary control herein as an important factor to combat work-life conflict. This kind of knowledge is of high relevance in contemporary working life characterized by an ever-increased blurring of work-nonwork boundaries. Organizations play an important role in creating new legitimate beliefs and as such, leisure norms could be implemented that promote employees’ boundary control, and subsequent reduced work-life conflict.

National Category
Social Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46080 (URN)
Conference
Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Drake, E., Toivanen, S., Leineweber, C. & Nyberg, A. (2019). Is combining human service work with family caregiving associated with additional odds of emotional exhaustion and sickness absence? A cross-sectional study based on a Swedish cohort.. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is combining human service work with family caregiving associated with additional odds of emotional exhaustion and sickness absence? A cross-sectional study based on a Swedish cohort.
2019 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to examine to what extent human service work and family caregiving is associated with emotional exhaustion and sickness absence, and to what extent combining human service work and family caregiving is associated with additional odds.

METHODS: Data were derived from participants in paid work from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, year 2016 (n = 11 951). Logistic regression analyses were performed and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals estimated for the association between human service work and family caregiving, respectively, as well as combinations of the two on one hand, and emotional exhaustion and self-reported sickness absence on the other hand. Interaction between human service work and family caregiving was assessed as departure from additivity with Rothman's synergy index.

RESULTS: Human service work was not associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but with higher odds of sickness absence. Providing childcare was associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but lower odds of sickness absence, and caring for a relative was associated with higher odds of both emotional exhaustion and sickness absence. There was no indication of an additive interaction between human service work and family caregiving in relation to neither emotional exhaustion nor sickness absence.

CONCLUSIONS: We did not find support for the common assumption that long hours providing service and care for others by combining human service work with family caregiving can explain the higher risk of sickness absence or emotional exhaustion among employees in human service occupations.

Keywords
Double duty caregiving, Emotional exhaustion, Family caregiving, Human service work, Informal caregiving, Sickness absence
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46075 (URN)10.1007/s00420-019-01461-0 (DOI)31346765 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2020-01-01
Toivanen, S., Hagqvist, E., Landstad, B., Nordenmark, M., Östergren, P.-O. & Vinberg, S. (2019). Mikroföretagares arbetsmiljö och hälsa med fokus på genus och etnicitet - innovationer för tillsyn. In: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv: uppdragsforskning med relevans för tillsynsverksamhete (pp. 43-55). Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mikroföretagares arbetsmiljö och hälsa med fokus på genus och etnicitet - innovationer för tillsyn
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2019 (Swedish)In: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv: uppdragsforskning med relevans för tillsynsverksamhete, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2019, p. 43-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket, 2019
Series
Rapport 2019:7: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv. Arbetsmiljöverket, ISSN 1650-3717
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46081 (URN)
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2020-01-01
Vinberg, S., Nordenmark, M., Hagqvist, E. & Toivanen, S. (2019). Sickness presenteeism among self-employed in Europe. In: : . Paper presented at FALF KONFERENS 2019 Hållbar utveckling i organisationer, Norrköping, 10-12 juni (pp. 89-90).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sickness presenteeism among self-employed in Europe
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Health incidents often result in sickness absenteeism, ie the failure to report for work as scheduled. However, there is increasing evidence that workers more and more decide for another option: sickness presenteeism, defined as attending work while ill. This can be problematic for the individual and presenteeism creates costs for organizations and the society as well. European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job-creation. The proportion of self-employed individuals in the employed labour force in Europe is around 15 percent. Most of the self-employed choose to become self-employed and have good working conditions and job quality. However, around 20 percent of the self-employed report that they have no alternative for work and they have lower levels of job quality and worse well-being compared to the former group of self-employed. In addition, earlier studies have indicated that self-employed have a high working pace and work many and irregular hours, indicating that it can be problematic and frustrating to stay at home because of illness. It can be assumed that health and well-being among self-employed and managers in small-scale enterprises is particularly crucial in this enterprise group due to that the smallness make them vulnerable. Self-employed is an interesting category when it comes to the phenomenon of sickness presenteeism. To our knowledge, there are few studies of sickness presenteeism among self-employed. AimThe aim of this paper is to study the occurrence of sickness presence among different groups of self-employed in relation to …

National Category
Social Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46083 (URN)
Conference
FALF KONFERENS 2019 Hållbar utveckling i organisationer, Norrköping, 10-12 juni
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Nyberg, A., Johansson, G., Westerlund, H., Rostila, M. & Toivanen, S. (2019). Status incongruence in human service occupations and implications for mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence: A prospective cohort study.. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Status incongruence in human service occupations and implications for mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence: A prospective cohort study.
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2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that negative status incongruence may contribute to explain higher risk of mental ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations (HSO). Methods Participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health who responded to questionnaires in both 2014 and 2016 (N=11 814; 42% men, 58% women) were included. Status incongruence between register-based educational level and subjective social status was assessed. The association between employment in a HSO and status incongruence was estimated in linear regression analyses adjusted for age, income, work hours, sickness absence, childcare, and job qualification match. The prospective associations between status incongruence and mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence ≥31 days respectively were estimated with logistic regression analyses in models adjusted for age and outcomes at baseline. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results Employment in a HSO was associated with more negative status incongruence in both genders [standardized coefficient men 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.07; women 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.09]. More negative status incongruence was furthermore associated with higher odds of mild-to-severe depressive symptoms (men OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08-1.29; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.26) and sickness absence ≥31 days (men OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.23-1.59; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28) two years later. Conclusion Status incongruence is somewhat higher among HSO than other occupations and associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms and sickness absence.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46074 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3853 (DOI)31570947 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2020-01-01
Dunlavy, A. C., Juárez, S., Toivanen, S. & Rostila, M. (2019). Suicide risk among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden: a longitudinal examination of the role of unemployment status. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 54(5), 579-590
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suicide risk among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden: a longitudinal examination of the role of unemployment status
2019 (English)In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 579-590Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Prior research has documented an association between unemployment and elevated suicide risk. Yet, few Swedish studies have explicitly considered how such risk may vary by different migration background characteristics among persons of foreign-origin, who often experience diverse forms of labor market marginalization. This study examines the extent to which unemployment status may differentially influence suicide risk among the foreign-origin by generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence. Methods: Population-based registers were used to conduct a longitudinal, open cohort study of native-origin and foreign-origin Swedish residents of working age (25–64 years) from 1993 to 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide mortality were estimated using gender-stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Elevated suicide risk observed among foreign-origin unemployed groups was generally of a similar or lower magnitude than that found in unemployed native-origin, although unemployed second-generation Swedish men demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) excess risk of suicide than that observed among their native-origin counterparts. Unemployed foreign-born men with a younger age at arrival and longer duration of residence demonstrated an increased risk of suicide, while those who arrived as adults, and a shorter duration of residence did not show any increased risk. Among foreign-born women, excess suicide risk persisted regardless of age at arrival and duration of residence in the long-term unemployed. Conclusions: Multiple migration background characteristics should be considered when examining relationships between employment status and suicide among the foreign-origin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag GmbH and Co. KG, 2019
Keywords
Employment status, Health equity, Migrant mental health, Suicide, Sweden
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43887 (URN)10.1007/s00127-018-1621-z (DOI)000468889500006 ()30421040 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056569077 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-11-15
Hagqvist, E., Toivanen, S. & Vinberg, S. (2019). The gender time gap: Time use among self-employed women and men compared to paid employees in Sweden. Time & Society, 28(2), 680-696
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The gender time gap: Time use among self-employed women and men compared to paid employees in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Time & Society, ISSN 0961-463X, E-ISSN 1461-7463, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 680-696Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, the authors set out to study the time use of men and women in Sweden, comparing self-employed and employed individuals. Previous studies indicate that there are reasons to believe that both gendered time use and mechanisms related to time use might differ between the self-employed and employees. Employing time use data, the aim was to study whether there are differences in gendered time use between self-employed individuals and employees in Sweden, and furthermore, which mechanism relates to gendered time use among self-employed individuals and employees. The results show that self-employed men and women distribute their time in a more gender-traditional manner than employees. In addition, relative resources are found to be an important factor related to gendered time use among the self-employed. For employees, gender relations tend to be a mechanism related to …

National Category
Social Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46077 (URN)10.1177/0961463X16683969 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-12-16Bibliographically approved
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