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Hennessy, J., Li, H., Wallin, F. & Thorin, E. (2019). Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 2430-2434). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks
2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 2430-2434Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future energy systems need to be more flexible. The use of cross-sector coupling in combination with thermal storage in thermal grids has been shown to provide such flexibility. The presented study reviews how short-term storage in district heating distribution networks is used or modelled for flexibility, what are the most important parameters, and where the knowledge gaps remain. The results show that the potential for flexibility from district heating has not been fully exploited. Sensible thermal storage tanks are 50-100 times cheaper than electrical storage and storage in the distribution network requires little additional investment in infrastructure. In some countries, the majority of district heating systems have sensible thermal storage tanks, with as much as 64 % of their capacity available for flexibility services. Initial results suggest that only smaller networks are prevented from using the distribution network for storage, but the impacts of this type of use on the physical components and the capacity limitations remain unclear and show a need for standardised methods for analysis. There is a growing interest, both in Europe and China, in the use of short-term storage in district heating to provide flexibility, particularly in the form of ancillary services to the electricity grid, but implementations of these techniques are rare. The presented study identifies a number of remaining knowledge gaps that should be addressed in order to harness available flexibility in district heating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Curtailment, District heating and cooling, Flexibility, Renewable energy, Thermal grids, Thermal inertia, Thermal storage
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43135 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.302 (DOI)000471031702121 ()2-s2.0-85063896688 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Hennessy, J., Li, H., Wallin, F. & Thorin, E. (2018). Towards smart thermal grids: Techno-economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies for district heating. Applied Energy, 228, 766-776
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards smart thermal grids: Techno-economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies for district heating
2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 766-776Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent improvements in low-temperature heat-to-power (LTHtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. LTHtP has so far not been used in district heating. The aim of the study is to establish under what conditions the use of existing LTHtP technology is technically and economically feasible using a district heating system as the heat source. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is identified as the most interesting LTHtP technology, due to its high relative efficiency and the commercial availability of devices operating at temperatures in the district heating operating range. The levelised cost of electricity of several ORC devices is calculated for temperatures found in district heating, assuming a zero cost of heat. A case study from Sweden is used to calculate the levelised cost of electricity, the net present value and payback period, based on income from the electricity produced, excluding taxes. Hourly spot market electricity prices from 2017 are used, as well as forecast scenarios for 2020, 2030 and 2040. A sensitivity study tests the importance of electricity price, cost of heat and capital/installation cost. Based on the case study, the best levelised cost of electricity achieved was 26.5 EUR/MWh, with a payback period greater than 30 years. Under current Swedish market conditions, the ORC does not appear to be economically feasible for use in district heating, but the net present value and payback period may be significantly more attractive under other countries’ market conditions or with reduced capital costs. For a positive net present value in the Swedish market the capital cost should be reduced to 1.7 EUR/W installed, or the average electricity price should be at least 35.2 EUR/MWh, if the cost of heat is zero. The cost of heat is an important factor in these calculations and should be developed further in future work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Ancillary services, District heating, Heat to power, LCOE, Smart grids, Thermal grids
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40231 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.105 (DOI)000447479400062 ()2-s2.0-85049354404 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-12 Created: 2018-07-12 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Hennessy, J., Li, H., Thorin, E. & Räftegård, O. (2017). Economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies suitable for use in district heating networks. Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2017; Cardiff; United Kingdom; 21 August 2017 through 24 August 2017. Energy Procedia, 142, 1721-1727, Article ID EGYPRO33942.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies suitable for use in district heating networks
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 1721-1727, article id EGYPRO33942Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent improvements in heat-to-power (HtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. HtP is used extensively in power generation via the steam Rankine cycle, but so far has not been used in district heating (DH). The aim of the study is to analyze the economic feasibility of using HtP technologies in a DH network. This is achieved by establishing suitable technologies and calculating the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) under conditions that may be found in DH. The result, for the vendors, temperatures and assumptions considered, is a range of 25–292 €/MWh, excluding the cost of heat. The breadth of this range in part reflects the importance of selecting appropriate products to match the heat source temperature.

Keywords
district energy, district heating, heat to power, organic Rankine cycle, ORC, levelized cost of electricity, LCOE, thermal grids, smart grids, district heat to power, smart thermal grids, ancillary services, balancing power, levelized cost of heat, LCOH
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38545 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.555 (DOI)000452901601135 ()2-s2.0-85041516921 (Scopus ID)
Conference
9th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2017; Cardiff; United Kingdom; 21 August 2017 through 24 August 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1613-5762

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