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Salman, Chaudhary AwaisORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2661-1961
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Salman, C. A., Struhar, V., Papadopoulos, A., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2019). Fogification of industrial robotic systems: Research challenges. In: IoT-Fog 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT: . Paper presented at 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, IoT-Fog 2019, 15 April 2019 (pp. 41-45). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fogification of industrial robotic systems: Research challenges
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2019 (English)In: IoT-Fog 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 41-45Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To meet the demands of future automation systems, the architecture of traditional control systems such as the industrial robotic systems needs to evolve and new architectural paradigms need to be investigated. While cloud-based platforms provide services such as computational resources on demand, they do not address the requirements of real-time performance expected by control applications. Fog computing is a promising new architectural paradigm that complements the cloud-based platform by addressing its limitations. In this paper, we analyse the existing robot system architecture and propose a fog-based solution for industrial robotic systems that addresses the needs of future automation systems. We also propose the use of Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) services for real-time communication and OPC-UA for information modelling within this architecture. Additionally, we discuss the main research challenges associated with the proposed architecture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2019
Keywords
Automation, Computer architecture, Fog, Industrial research, Internet of things, Robotics, Cloud based platforms, Computational resources, Control applications, Industrial robotic systems, Information modelling, Proposed architectures, Real time performance, Real-time communication, Fog computing
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43888 (URN)10.1145/3313150.3313225 (DOI)000473542200009 ()2-s2.0-85066045184 (Scopus ID)9781450366984 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, IoT-Fog 2019, 15 April 2019
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Dahlquist, E., Thorin, E., Kyprianidis, K. & Avelin, A. (2019). Future directions for CHP plants using biomass and waste - Adding production of vehicle fuels. In: E3S Web of Conferences: . Paper presented at 2019 SUstainable PolyEnergy Generation and HaRvesting, SUPEHR 2019, 4 September 2019 through 6 September 2019. EDP Sciences, Article ID 01006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future directions for CHP plants using biomass and waste - Adding production of vehicle fuels
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2019 (English)In: E3S Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences , 2019, article id 01006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Northern Europe, the production of many biobased CHP plants is getting affected due to the enormous expansion of wind and solar power. In addition, heat demand varies throughout the year, and existing CHP plants show less technical performance and suffer economically. By integrating the existing CHP plants with other processes for the production of chemicals, they can be operated more hours, provide operational and production flexibility and thus increase efficiency and profitability. In this paper, we look at a possible solution by converting an existing CHP plant into integrated biorefinery by retrofitting pyrolysis and gasification process. Pyrolysis is retrofitted in an existed CHP plant. Bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis is upgraded to vehicle grade biofuels. Gasification process located upfront of CHP plant provides the hydrogen required for upgradation of biofuel. The results show that a pyrolysis plant with 18 ton/h feed handling capacity (90 MWth), when integrated with gasification for hydrogen requirement and CHP plant for heat can produce 5.2 ton/h of gasoline/diesel grade biofuels. The system integration gives positive economic benefits too but the annual operating hours can impact economic performance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2019
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45259 (URN)10.1051/e3sconf/201911301006 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071879296 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2019 SUstainable PolyEnergy Generation and HaRvesting, SUPEHR 2019, 4 September 2019 through 6 September 2019
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Schwede, S., Thorin, E., Li, H. & Yan, J. (2019). Identification of thermochemical pathways for the energy and nutrient recovery from digested sludge in wastewater treatment plants. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018 (pp. 1317-1322). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of thermochemical pathways for the energy and nutrient recovery from digested sludge in wastewater treatment plants
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2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 1317-1322Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are several restrictions and limitations on the emissions and disposal of materials and pollutants related to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) emphasizing improvement of current processes and development of new methods. Process integration is one way to use all fractions of waste for improved efficiency. WWTPs produces sludge which is usually anaerobically digested to produce biogas and a byproduct called digestate. Digestate is an organic material that contains macro and micronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium and also contains heavy metals. Digestate is mainly used for agricultural applications because of the presence of nutrients. However, digestate also contains energy in the form of carbon and hydrogen which can be harnessed through various processes and integrated with nitrogen recovery process. This study aims to recover the energy and nutrients from digestate through thermochemical treatment processes. Combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification are assessed and compared in this work. An ammonia stripping method is assumed to recover nitrogen from digestate. The thermochemical processes are heat integrated with ammonia stripping through modeling and simulation. Results show that almost half of the energy present in digested sludge is required for its drying. Moreover, nitrogen recovery also requires much energy. The combustion and gasification of digested sludge give better results than pyrolysis. The heat integration becomes feasible when the auxiliary biogas is also burned along with products from the thermochemical treatment of sludge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Combustion, Digestate, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Wastewater treatment, Ammonia, Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Heavy metals, Nitrogen, Nutrients, Reclamation, Sewage pumping plants, Waste incineration, Wastewater disposal, Water treatment plants, Carbon and hydrogens, Macro-and micronutrients, Model and simulation, Process integration, Thermo chemical process, Thermochemical treatments, Wastewater treatment plants
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43184 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.325 (DOI)000471031701105 ()2-s2.0-85063872188 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Li, H., Wang, B., Yan, J., Salman, C. A., Thorin, E. & Schwede, S. (2019). Performance of flue gas quench and its influence on biomass fueled CHP. Energy, 180, 934-945
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of flue gas quench and its influence on biomass fueled CHP
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2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 180, p. 934-945Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For biomass/waste fueled power plants, stricter regulations require a further reduction of the negative impacts on the environment caused by the release of pollutants and withdrawal of fresh water externally. Flue gas quench (FGQ) is playing an important role in biomass or waste fueled combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as it can link the flue gas (FG) cleaning, energy recovery and wastewater treatment. Enhancing water evaporation can benefit the concentrating of pollutant in the quench water; however, when FG condenser (FGC) is not in use, it results in a large consumption of fresh water. In order to deeply understand the operation of FGQ, a mathematic model was developed and validated against the measurements. Based on simulation results key parameters affecting FGQ have been identified, such as the flow rate and temperature of recycling water and the moisture content of FG. A guideline about how to reduce the discharge of wastewater to the external and the withdrawal of external water can be proposed. The mathematic model was also implemented into an ASPEN Plus model about a CHP plant to assess the impacts of FGQ on CHP. Results show that when the FGC was running, increasing the flow rate and decreasing the temperature of recycling water can result in a lower total energy efficiency. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Biomass and waste fueled CHP, Energy efficiency, Flue gas cleaning, Flue gas quench, Water balance
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44660 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.05.078 (DOI)000474315800074 ()2-s2.0-85067066514 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Schwede, S., Naqvi, M., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2019). Synergistic combination of pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and CHP plants.. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018 (pp. 1323-1329). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synergistic combination of pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and CHP plants.
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2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 1323-1329Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The anaerobic digestion of biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a widely used process for biogas production. However, the biodegradable fraction of MSW also contains lignocellulosic waste which hinders the biogas production if added to the digester in higher quantity. So it needs to be separated from biodegradable waste and sent for alternate treatment, e.g., incineration, landfilling or compositing. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic waste to produce biochar, syngas, and bio oil is an alternate treatment to consider. Furthermore, there is a reported correlation between the addition of biochar in the digester and higher biogas production. Previously, we coupled the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic waste with anaerobic digestion plant. Pyrolysis produces the biochar and vapors. Biochar was added in the digester to enhance the biomethane production. The vapors produced in the pyrolysis process were converted to biomethane through the catalytic methanation process. The combination gives the overall efficiency of 67%. In this work, we modified the process concept to increase the integration level of these processes. The main issue with the pyrolysis process is its heat required to operate, while some of its downstream processes also generate excess heat. In this study, the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic waste is integrated with an operating combined heat and power (CHP) plant, by using its existing infrastructure for heat transport among different pyrolysis operations. The combustor of the CHP plant provides the heat for drying and pyrolysis while the excess heat is transferred back to the combustor. The biochar produced from pyrolysis is transported back to the digester as an adsorbent. The process simulation results show that the combined efficiency of pyrolysis with CHP plant reached 80%. If the biochar is sent back to the anaerobic digester, the synergetic efficiency of all three processes, i.e., pyrolysis-CHP and anaerobic digestion was obtained at 79.7% as compared with the 67% efficiency when the pyrolysis was only integrated with the anaerobic digestion process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Heat integration, Lignocellulosic waste, Municipal solid waste, Biogas, Cogeneration plants, Combustors, Power generation, Pyrolysis, Waste incineration, Anaerobic digestion process, Biodegradable fraction, Biodegradable wastes, Combined heat and power, Lignocellulosic wastes, Municipal solid waste (MSW), Synergistic combinations, Anaerobic digestion
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43183 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.326 (DOI)000471031701106 ()2-s2.0-85063896503 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Naqvi, M., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2018). Gasification process integration with existing combined heat and power plants for polygeneration of dimethyl ether or methanol: A detailed profitability analysis. Applied Energy, 226, 116-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gasification process integration with existing combined heat and power plants for polygeneration of dimethyl ether or methanol: A detailed profitability analysis
2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 226, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Combustion of waste for cogeneration of heat and power is the most convenient and practical choice to carry out through combined heat and power (CHP) plants. But, seasonal variation in heat demand throughout the year affects the operation of CHP plants. This fluctuation in the CHP operation cause less annual operating hours for the plant equipment and is also not profitable for stakeholders. This study aims to assess the technical potential of integrated gasification process with existing CHP plants for either dimethyl ether (DME) or methanol production through refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Process integration considers that the CHP plant provides the necessary heat for biofuel synthesis during off-peak hours. Mass and heat integration methods are used to develop and simulate the polygeneration processes for heat, power, and biofuel production. Both technical and economic indicators are reported and compared to assess the potential for both biofuels through process integration. Annual operation data of a real CHP plant has been extracted to evaluate the integrated processes. A flexible gasification configuration is selected for the integrated approach i.e. CHP runs at full load to provide the heat demand and only the excess heat of CHP plant is utilized for biofuel production. The energetic efficiencies of the polygeneration systems are compared with the standalone systems. Technical analysis of process integration shows the enhancement of the operational capacity of CHP during off-peak hours and it can produce biofuels without compromising the annual heat demand. Production of methanol through process integration shows ∼67% energetic efficiency while methanol production gives ∼65%. The efficiencies are higher than standalone DME and methanol processes (51% and 53%, respectively) but lower than standalone CHP plant i.e. 81%, however the process integration increases the operating time of the CHP plant with more economic benefits. Economic analysis coupled with uncertainty analysis through Monte Carlo simulations shows that by integrating CHP with gasifier to produce biofuels is significantly profitable as compared with only heat and electricity production. But, DME as a potential product shows more economic benefits than methanol. The uncertainty analysis through Monte Carlo simulations shows that the profitable probability of DME as a product in future is also greater than methanol due to higher DME selling price. The uncertainty analysis further shows that prices of DME and methanol with waste biomass prices in future will have a greater impact on the economic performance of the proposed polygeneration process. 

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39632 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.05.069 (DOI)000441688100011 ()2-s2.0-85047756868 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2018-10-11Bibliographically approved
Naqvi, M., Dahlquist, E., Yan, J., Naqvi, S. R., Nizami, A. S., Salman, C. A., . . . Qureshi, A. S. (2018). Polygeneration system integrated with small non-wood pulp mills for substitute natural gas production. Applied Energy, 224, 636-646
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polygeneration system integrated with small non-wood pulp mills for substitute natural gas production
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 224, p. 636-646Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to examine the potential substitute natural gas (SNG) production by integrating black liquor gasification (BLG) island with a small wheat straw-based non-wood pulp mills (NPM), which do not employ the black liquor recovery cycle. For such integration, it is important to first build knowledge on expected improvements in an overall integrated non-wood pulp mill energy system using the key performance indicators. O2-blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification with direct causticization is integrated with a reference small NPM to evaluate the overall performance. A detailed economic analysis is performed together with a sensitivity analysis based on variations in the rate of return due to varying biomass price, total capital investment, and natural gas prices. The quantitive results showed considerable SNG production but significantly reduced electricity production. There is a substantial CO2 abatement potential combining CO2 capture and CO2 mitigation from SNG use replacing compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline. The economic performance through sensitivity analysis reflects significant dependency on both substitute natural gas production and natural gas market price. Furthermore, the solutions to address the challenges and barriers for the successful commercial implementation of BLG based polygeneration system at small NPMs are discussed. The system performance and discussion on the real application of integrated system presented in this article form a vital literature source for future use by large number of small non-wood pulp industries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39297 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.05.005 (DOI)000436901400049 ()2-s2.0-85046790342 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Naqvi, M., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2017). A polygeneration process for heat, power and DME production by integrating gasification with CHP plant: Modelling and simulation study. Energy Procedia, 142, 1749-1758
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A polygeneration process for heat, power and DME production by integrating gasification with CHP plant: Modelling and simulation study
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 1749-1758Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biofuels are a good substitute for the transport sector petroleum fuels to minimize carbon footprint and greenhouse gases emissions. Di-Methyl Ether (DME) is one such alternative with properties similar to liquefied petroleum gas but with lower SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions. In this work, a polygeneration process, integrating an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant with biomass gasification to synthesize DME, is proposed and modelled. Process integration is based on a hypothesis that the CHP plant provides the necessary heat to run the co-located gasification plant for DME synthesis and the waste heat from the gasification process is recovered and transferred to the CHP plant. The feed for gasification is taken as refuse derived fuel (RDF) instead of conventional wood derived biomass. The process integration leads to higher overall combined efficiency (up to 71%) which is greater than stand-alone efficiencies (up to 63%) but lower than stand-alone CHP plant efficiency (73.2%). The further technical evaluation shows that the efficiency of the polygeneration process is depends heavily on the gasifier capacity integrated with the existing CHP plant and also on the conversion route selected for DME synthesis i.e. recycling of unconverted syngas to the DME reactor or transferring it to the boiler of the CHP plant. The simulation results also indicate that once-through conversion yields less DME than recycling, but at the same time, once-through conversion affects the district heat and electric power production of the CHP plant lesser than by using the recycling route.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38721 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.559 (DOI)000452901601139 ()2-s2.0-85041530043 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-01 Created: 2018-03-01 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Schwede, S., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2017). Enhancing biomethane production by integrating pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion processes. Applied Energy, 204, 1074-1083
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing biomethane production by integrating pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion processes
2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 204, p. 1074-1083Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic waste is a mature and increasingly used process for biomethane production. However, the efficient use of different fractions of waste is a big concern in anaerobic digestion plants. This study proposes the use of a new process configuration that couples the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste with the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic or green waste. The biochar obtained from pyrolysis was added to a digester as an adsorbent to increase the biomethane content and to support the development of a stable microbial community. In addition, the bio-oil and syngas produced by the pyrolysis process were reformed into syngas and then converted to biomethane via methanation. Modelling and simulations were performed for the proposed novel process. The results showed an approximately 1.2-fold increase in the biomethane volume produced. An overall efficiency of 67% was achieved, whereas the stand-alone anaerobic digestion system had an efficiency of only 52%. The results also indicated a high annual revenue for the integrated process compared to that for an alternative treatment (incineration) of green waste.

Keywords
Green waste, Municipal solid waste, Aspen Plus, Process simulation, Performance analysis, Economic analysis
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37195 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.006 (DOI)000412866500084 ()2-s2.0-85019131215 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-07 Created: 2017-11-07 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Naqvi, M., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2017). Impact of retrofitting existing combined heat and power plant with polygeneration of biomethane: A comparative techno-economic analysis of integrating different gasifiers. Energy Conversion and Management, 152, 250-265
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of retrofitting existing combined heat and power plant with polygeneration of biomethane: A comparative techno-economic analysis of integrating different gasifiers
2017 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 152, p. 250-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is vital to identify and evaluate the optimal gasifier configuration that could be integrated with existing or new combined heat and power (CHP) plants to maximize the utilization of boiler operating capacity during off-peak hours with minimal effect on the boiler performance. This study aims to identify technically and economically most suitable gasification configuration and the reasonable operational limits of a CHP plant when integrated with different types of gasifiers. The selected gasifiers for the study are, (i) indirectly heated dual fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG), (ii) directly heated circulating fluidized bed gasifier (CFBG), and (iii) entrained flow gasifier (EFG). The gasifiers are selected on their ability to produce high-quality syngas from waste refused derived fuel (RDF). The syngas from the gasifiers is utilized to produce biomethane, whereas the heat and power from the CHP plant are consumed to run the gasification process. A detailed techno-economic analysis is performed using both flexible capacity and fixed capacity gasifiers and integrated with the CHP plant at full load. The results reveal that the integration leads to increase in operating time of the boiler for all gasifier configurations. The indirectly heated DFBG shows the largest biomethane production with less impact on the district heat and power production. Extra heat is available for biomethane production when the district heat and biomethane are prioritized, and the electric power is considered as a secondary product. Furthermore, the economic indicators reflect considerable dependency of integrated gasification performance on variable prices of waste biomass and biomethane. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37304 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2017.09.022 (DOI)000417657000023 ()2-s2.0-85033397695 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-11-02Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2661-1961

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