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Sadovykh, A., Bagnato, A., Truscan, D., Pierini, P., Bruneliere, H., Gómez, A., . . . Afzal, W. (2020). A Tool-Supported Approach for Building the Architecture and Roadmap in MegaM@Rt2 Project. In: Adv. Intell. Sys. Comput.: . Paper presented at 7 June 2018 through 8 June 2018 (pp. 265-274). Springer Verlag, 925
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Tool-Supported Approach for Building the Architecture and Roadmap in MegaM@Rt2 Project
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2020 (English)In: Adv. Intell. Sys. Comput., Springer Verlag , 2020, Vol. 925, p. 265-274Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

MegaM@Rt2 is a large European project dedicated to the provisioning of a model-based methodology and supporting tooling for system engineering at a wide scale. It notably targets the continuous development and runtime validation of such complex systems by developing the MegaM@Rt2 framework to address a large set of engineering processes and application domains. This collaborative project involves 27 partners from 6 different countries, 9 industrial case studies as well as over 30 different tools from project partners (and others). In the context of the project, we opted for a pragmatic model-driven approach in order to specify the case study requirements, design the high-level architecture of the MegaM@Rt2 framework, perform the gap analysis between the industrial needs and current state-of-the-art, and to plan a first framework development roadmap accordingly. The present paper concentrates on the concrete examples of the tooling approach for building the framework architecture. In particular, we discuss the collaborative modeling, requirements definition tooling, approach for components modeling, traceability and document generation. The paper also provides a brief discussion of the practical lessons we have learned from it so far.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2020
Keywords
Architecture, Document generation, Model-driven engineering, Modelio, Requirement engineering, SysML, Traceability, UML, Computer programming, Computer science, Application programs
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43179 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-14687-0_24 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064182093 (Scopus ID)9783030146863 (ISBN)
Conference
7 June 2018 through 8 June 2018
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-04-26Bibliographically approved
Tahvili, S., Hatvani, L., Felderer, M., Afzal, W. & Bohlin, M. (2019). Automated Functional Dependency Detection Between Test Cases Using Text Semantic Similarity. In: 2019 IEEE International Conference On Artificial Intelligence Testing (AITest): . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE International Conference On Artificial Intelligence Testing (AITest), 4-9 April 2019, Newark, CA, USA (pp. 19-26). , Article ID 8718215.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Functional Dependency Detection Between Test Cases Using Text Semantic Similarity
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2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE International Conference On Artificial Intelligence Testing (AITest), 2019, p. 19-26, article id 8718215Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Knowing about dependencies and similarities between test cases is beneficial for prioritizing them for cost-effective test execution. This holds especially true for the time consuming, manual execution of integration test cases written in natural language. Test case dependencies are typically derived from requirements and design artifacts. However, such artifacts are not always available, and the derivation process can be very time-consuming. In this paper, we propose, apply and evaluate a novel approach that derives test cases' similarities and functional dependencies directly from the test specification documents written in natural language, without requiring any other data source. Our approach uses an implementation of Doc2Vec algorithm to detect text-semantic similarities between test cases and then groups them using two clustering algorithms HDBSCAN and FCM. The correlation between test case text-semantic similarities and their functional dependencies is evaluated in the context of an on-board train control system from Bombardier Transportation AB in Sweden. For this system, the dependencies between the test cases were previously derived and are compared to the results our approach. The results show that of the two evaluated clustering algorithms, HDBSCAN has better performance than FCM or a dummy classifier. The classification methods' results are of reasonable quality and especially useful from an industrial point of view. Finally, performing a random undersampling approach to correct the imbalanced data distribution results in an F1 Score of up to 75% when applying the HDBSCAN clustering algorithm.

National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41272 (URN)10.1109/AITest.2019.00-13 (DOI)000470916100004 ()2-s2.0-85067096441 (Scopus ID)9781728104928 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 IEEE International Conference On Artificial Intelligence Testing (AITest), 4-9 April 2019, Newark, CA, USA
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, P. E., Enoiu, E. P., Afzal, W., Daniel, S. & Feldt, R. (2019). Information Flow in Software Testing: An Interview Study with Embedded Software Engineering Practitioners. IEEE Access, 7, 46434-46453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information Flow in Software Testing: An Interview Study with Embedded Software Engineering Practitioners
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 46434-46453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Activities in software testing is a challenge for companies that develop embedded systems where multiple functional teams and technologically difficult tasks are common. This study aims at exploring the information flow in software testing, the perceived challenges and good approaches, for a more effective information flow. We conducted semi-structured interviews with twelve software practitioners working at five organizations in the embedded software industry in Sweden. The interviews were analyzed by means of thematic analysis. The data was classified into six themes that affect the information flow in software testing: testing and troubleshooting, communication, processes, technology, artifacts and organization. We further identified a number of challenges such as poor feedback and understanding exactly what has been tested; and approaches such as fast feedback as well as custom automated test reporting; to achieve an improved information flow. Our results indicate that there are many opportunities to improve this information flow: a first mitigation step is to better understand the challenges and approaches. Future work is needed to realize this in practice, for example to shorten feedback cycles between roles, as well as enhance exploration and visualization of test results

National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40930 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2909093 (DOI)000465621200001 ()2-s2.0-85064750453 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20150277
Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Sadovykh, A., Afzal, W., Truscan, D., Pierini, P., Bruneliere, H., Bagnato, A., . . . Avila-García, O. (2019). On a tool-supported model-based approach for building architectures and roadmaps: The MegaM@Rt2 project experience. Microprocessors and microsystems, 71, Article ID 102848.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On a tool-supported model-based approach for building architectures and roadmaps: The MegaM@Rt2 project experience
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2019 (English)In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 71, article id 102848Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

MegaM@Rt2 is a large European project dedicated to the provisioning of a model-based methodology and supporting tooling for system engineering at a wide scale. It notably targets the continuous development and runtime validation of such complex systems by developing a framework addressing a large set of engineering processes and application domains. This collaborative project involves 27 partners from 6 different countries, 9 industrial case studies as well as over 30 different software tools from project partners (and others). In the context of the MegaM@Rt2 project, we elaborated on a pragmatic model-driven approach to specify the case study requirements, design the high-level architecture of a framework, perform the gap analysis between the industrial needs and current state-of-the-art, and plan a first framework development roadmap accordingly. The present paper describes the generic tool-supported approach that came out as a result. It also details its concrete application in the MegaM@Rt2 project. In particular, we discuss the collaborative modeling process, the requirement definition tooling, the approach for components modeling, as well as the traceability and document generation. In addition, we show how we used the proposed solution to specify the MegaM@Rt2 framework's conceptual tool components centered around three complementary tool sets: the MegaM@Rt2 System Engineering Tool Set, the MegaM@Rt2 Runtime Analysis Tool Set and the MegaM@Rt2 Model & Traceability Management Tool Set. The paper ends with a discussion on the practical lessons we have learned from this work so far. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44964 (URN)10.1016/j.micpro.2019.102848 (DOI)2-s2.0-85069956069 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Fifo, M., Enoiu, E. P. & Afzal, W. (2019). On Measuring Combinatorial Coverage of Manually Created Test Cases for Industrial Software. In: International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops ICSTW19: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST), 22 Apr 2019, Xian, China (pp. 264-267).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Measuring Combinatorial Coverage of Manually Created Test Cases for Industrial Software
2019 (English)In: International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops ICSTW19, 2019, p. 264-267Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Combinatorial coverage has been proposed as a way to measure the quality of test cases by using the input interaction characteristics. This paper describes the results of empirically measuring combinatorial coverage of manually created test cases by experienced industrial engineers. We found that manual test cases achieve on average 78% 2-way combinatorial coverage, 57% 3-way coverage, 40% 4-way coverage, 20% 5-way combinatorial coverage and 13% for 6-way combinatorial coverage. These manual test cases can be augmented to achieve 100% combinatorial coverage for 2-way and 3-way interactions by adding eight and 66 missing tests on average, respectively. For 4-way interactions, full combinatorial coverage can achieved by adding 658 missing tests. For 5-way and 6-way interactions, full combinatorial coverage can be achieved by adding 5163 and 6170 missing tests on average, respectively. The results of this paper suggest that manual tests created by industrial engineers do no achieve high combinatorial coverage and can be improved by using combinatorial testing at the expense of the number of test cases to be executed.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43914 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW.2019.00062 (DOI)000477742600038 ()
Conference
12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST), 22 Apr 2019, Xian, China
Projects
MegaMaRt2 - Megamodelling at Runtime (ECSEL/Vinnova)XIVT - eXcellence in Variant Testing
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Sadovykh, A., Truscan, D., Pierini, P., Widforss, G., Ashraf, A., Bruneliere, H., . . . Espinosa Hortelano, A. (2019). On the Use of Hackathons to Enhance Collaboration in Large Collaborative Projects: - A Preliminary Case Study of the MegaM@Rt2 EU Project - A P. In: Proceedings of the 2019 Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2019: . Paper presented at 22nd Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2019, 25 March 2019 through 29 March 2019 (pp. 498-503). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Use of Hackathons to Enhance Collaboration in Large Collaborative Projects: - A Preliminary Case Study of the MegaM@Rt2 EU Project - A P
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2019 Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 498-503Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present the MegaM@Rt2 ECSEL project and discuss in details our approach for fostering collaboration in this project. We choose to use an internal hackathon approach that focuses on technical collaboration between case study owners and tool/method providers. The novelty of the approach is that we organize the technical workshop at our regular project progress meetings as a challenge-based contest involving all partners in the project. Case study partners submit their challenges related to the project goals and their use cases in advance. These challenges are concise enough to be experimented within approximately 4 hours. Teams are then formed to address those challenges. The teams include tool/method providers, case study owners and researchers/developers from other consortium members. On the hackathon day, partners work together to come with results addressing the challenges that are both interesting to encourage collaboration and convincing to continue further deeper investigations. Obtained results demonstrate that the hackathon approach stimulated knowledge exchanges among project partners and triggered new collaborations, notably between tool providers and use case owners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Collaboration, Hackathon, Project, Collaborative projects, Consortium members, Knowledge exchange, Project partners, Project progress
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43884 (URN)10.23919/DATE.2019.8715247 (DOI)000470666100091 ()2-s2.0-85066604509 (Scopus ID)9783981926323 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2019, 25 March 2019 through 29 March 2019
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Fatima, R., Yasin, A., Liu, L., Wang, J. & Afzal, W. (2019). Sharing information online rationally: An observation of user privacy concerns and awareness using serious game. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 48, Article ID 102351.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sharing information online rationally: An observation of user privacy concerns and awareness using serious game
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Information Security and Applications, ISSN 2214-2134, E-ISSN 2214-2126, Vol. 48, article id 102351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent studies have shown that excessive online information disclosure is a major reason of privacy breach. It makes it easy for social engineers to gather information about their targets. The objective of this study is to gather user privacy concerns reported in the literature and categorize them into themes, then design a serious game covering the categorized privacy concerns and evaluate the educational effect of the game regarding dangers associated with excessive online information disclosure. We have conducted a literature review and extracted user privacy concerns reported in 109+ publications. Then we designed a serious game and empirically evaluated the game players awareness of dangers associated with excessive online information disclosure. We find that privacy awareness has a positive long-term impact on users online behavior in terms of controlled information sharing. However, social networking needs drive users to share information online, even knowing the potential risks. The proposed serious game shows positive effect in improving the privacy awareness of participants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Awareness, Behaviour, Elicitation, Information assurance, Information disclosure, Online privacy, Privacy knowledge, Privacy paradox, Review, Self-Control, Serious game, Social awareness, User privacy concerns
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44911 (URN)10.1016/j.jisa.2019.06.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068400421 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 18 July 2019; Article; Correspondence Address: Liu, L.; School of Software, Tsinghua UniversityChina; email: linliu@tsinghua.edu.cn

Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2019-07-18Bibliographically approved
Tahvili, S., Pimentel, R., Afzal, W., Ahlberg, M., Fornander, E. & Bohlin, M. (2019). sOrTES: A Supportive Tool for Stochastic Scheduling of Manual Integration Test Cases. IEEE Access, 7, 12928-12946
Open this publication in new window or tab >>sOrTES: A Supportive Tool for Stochastic Scheduling of Manual Integration Test Cases
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 12928-12946Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main goal of software testing is to detect as many hidden bugs as possible in the final software product before release. Generally, a software product is tested by executing a set of test cases, which can be performed manually or automatically. The number of test cases which are required to test a software product depends on several parameters such as the product type, size, and complexity. Executing all test cases with no particular order can lead to waste of time and resources. Test optimization can provide a partial solution for saving time and resources which can lead to the final software product being released earlier. In this regard, test case selection, prioritization, and scheduling can be considered as possible solutions for test optimization. Most of the companies do not provide direct support for ranking test cases on their own servers. In this paper, we introduce, apply, and evaluate sOrTES as our decision support system for manual integration of test scheduling. sOrTES is a Python-based supportive tool which schedules manual integration test cases which are written in a natural language text. The feasibility of sOrTES is studied by an empirical evaluation which has been performed on a railway use-case at Bombardier Transportation, Sweden. The empirical evaluation indicates that around 40% of testing failure can be avoided by using the proposed execution schedules by sOrTES, which leads to an increase in the requirements coverage of up to 9.6%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2019
Keywords
Software testing, integration testing, test optimization, decision support systems, stochastic test scheduling, manual testing, scheduler algorithm, dependency
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42989 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2893209 (DOI)000458177800064 ()2-s2.0-85061302207 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, P. E., Ostrand, T. J., WEYUKER, E., Daniel, S. & Afzal, W. (2018). Automated test mapping and coverage for network topologies. In: ISSTA 2018 - Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis: . Paper presented at 27th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis, ISSTA 2018, 16 July 2018 through 21 July 2018 (pp. 73-83). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated test mapping and coverage for network topologies
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2018 (English)In: ISSTA 2018 - Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2018, p. 73-83Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Communication devices such as routers and switches play a critical role in the reliable functioning of embedded system networks. Dozens of such devices may be part of an embedded system network, and they need to be tested in conjunction with various computational elements on actual hardware, in many different configurations that are representative of actual operating networks. An individual physical network topology can be used as the basis for a test system that can execute many test cases, by identifying the part of the physical network topology that corresponds to the configuration required by each individual test case. Given a set of available test systems and a large number of test cases, the problem is to determine for each test case, which of the test systems are suitable for executing the test case, and to provide the mapping that associates the test case elements (the logical network topology) with the appropriate elements of the test system (the physical network topology). We studied a real industrial environment where this problem was originally handled by a simple software procedure that was very slow in many cases, and also failed to provide thorough coverage of each network's elements. In this paper, we represent both the test systems and the test cases as graphs, and develop a new prototype algorithm that a) determines whether or not a test case can be mapped to a subgraph of the test system, b) rapidly finds mappings that do exist, and c) exercises diverse sets of network nodes when multiple mappings exist for the test case. The prototype has been implemented and applied to over 10,000 combinations of test cases and test systems, and reduced the computation time by a factor of more than 80 from the original procedure. In addition, relative to a meaningful measure of network topology coverage, the mappings achieved an increased level of thoroughness in exercising the elements of each test system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2018
Keywords
Network topology, Subgraph isomorphism, Test coverage, Testing, Embedded systems, Mapping, Test facilities, Topology, Communication device, Computational elements, Industrial environments, Physical network topologies, Prototype algorithms, Software testing
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40528 (URN)10.1145/3213846.3213859 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051515196 (Scopus ID)9781450356992 (ISBN)
Conference
27th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis, ISSTA 2018, 16 July 2018 through 21 July 2018
Available from: 2018-08-23 Created: 2018-08-23 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
Mehmood, M. A., Khan, M. N. & Afzal, W. (2018). Automating Test Data Generation for Testing Context-Aware Applications. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Sciences, ICSESS: . Paper presented at 9th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science, ICSESS 2018, 23 November 2018 through 25 November 2018 (pp. 104-108). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automating Test Data Generation for Testing Context-Aware Applications
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Sciences, ICSESS, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, p. 104-108Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context-aware applications are emerging applications in the modern era of computing. These applications can determine and adapt to situational context to provide better user experience. Testing these applications is not straightforward and poses several challenges such as developing context-aware test cases and generating test data etc. However, by employing model based testing technique, testing process for context-aware applications can be automated. To achieve maximum degree of automation, it is necessary to automate model transformation, test data generation and test cases execution. To execute test cases, test data is required and developing test data for context-aware applications is a challenging task. The aim of this study is to address this issue; thus, we propose automated test data generation for functional testing of context-aware applications. This automated test data generation can reduce testing time and cost, thus enabling test engineers to execute more testing cycles to attain higher degree of test coverage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2018
Keywords
Context-Aware Applications, Software Testing, Test Data, Application programs, Automatic test pattern generation, Automation, Metadata, Model checking, Automated test data generation, Context aware applications, Emerging applications, Model based testing, Model transformation, Situational context, Test data generation
National Category
Computer Sciences Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43069 (URN)10.1109/ICSESS.2018.8663920 (DOI)000467282900021 ()2-s2.0-85063624322 (Scopus ID)9781538665640 (ISBN)
Conference
9th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science, ICSESS 2018, 23 November 2018 through 25 November 2018
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0611-2655

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