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Rabet, I., Fotouhi, H., Alves, M., Vahabi, M. & Björkman, M. (2024). ACTOR: Adaptive Control of Transmission Power in RPL. Sensors, 24(7), Article ID 2330.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ACTOR: Adaptive Control of Transmission Power in RPL
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2024 (English)In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 24, no 7, article id 2330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

RPL-Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (usually pronounced "ripple")-is the de facto standard for IoT networks. However, it neglects to exploit IoT devices' full capacity to optimize their transmission power, mainly because it is quite challenging to do so in parallel with the routing strategy, given the dynamic nature of wireless links and the typically constrained resources of IoT devices. Adapting the transmission power requires dynamically assessing many parameters, such as the probability of packet collisions, energy consumption, the number of hops, and interference. This paper introduces Adaptive Control of Transmission Power for RPL (ACTOR) for the dynamic optimization of transmission power. ACTOR aims to improve throughput in dense networks by passively exploring different transmission power levels. The classic solutions of bandit theory, including the Upper Confidence Bound (UCB) and Discounted UCB, accelerate the convergence of the exploration and guarantee its optimality. ACTOR is also enhanced via mechanisms to blacklist undesirable transmission power levels and stabilize the topology of parent-child negotiations. The results of the experiments conducted on our 40-node, 12-node testbed demonstrate that ACTOR achieves a higher packet delivery ratio by almost 20%, reduces the transmission power of nodes by up to 10 dBm, and maintains a stable topology with significantly fewer parent switches compared to the standard RPL and the selected benchmarks. These findings are consistent with simulations conducted across 7 different scenarios, where improvements in end-to-end delay, packet delivery, and energy consumption were observed by up to 50%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2024
Keywords
wireless sensor networks, Routing Protocol for Low-Power Lossy Networks (RPL), radio resource management, transmission power control, multi-armed bandit, reinforcement learning, Upper Confidence Bound (UCB), performance evaluation, simulation, testbed, IPv6, 6LoWPAN, IEEE 802.15.4
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66493 (URN)10.3390/s24072330 (DOI)001201045700001 ()38610541 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85190249617 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-24 Created: 2024-04-24 Last updated: 2024-04-24Bibliographically approved
Satka, Z., Ashjaei, S. M., Fotouhi, H., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2023). A comprehensive systematic review of integration of time sensitive networking and 5G communication. Journal of systems architecture, 138, Article ID 102852.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive systematic review of integration of time sensitive networking and 5G communication
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2023 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 138, article id 102852Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many industrial real-time applications in various domains, e.g., automotive, industrial automation, industrial IoT, and industry 4.0, require ultra-low end-to-end network latency, often in the order of 10 milliseconds or less. The IEEE 802.1 time-sensitive networking (TSN) is a set of standards that supports the required low-latency wired communication with ultra-low jitter. The flexibility of such a wired connection can be increased if it is integrated with a mobile wireless network. The fifth generation of cellular networks (5G) is capable of supporting the required levels of network latency with the Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC) service. To fully utilize the potential of these two technologies (TSN and 5G) in industrial applications, seamless integration of the TSN wired-based network with the 5G wireless-based network is needed. In this article, we provide a comprehensive and well-structured snapshot of the existing research on TSN-5G integration. In this regard, we present the planning, execution, and analysis results of the systematic review. We also identify the trends, technical characteristics, and potential gaps in the state of the art, thus highlighting future research directions in the integration of TSN and 5G communication technologies. We notice that 73% of the primary studies address the time synchronization in the integration of TSN and 5G technologies, introducing approaches with an accuracy starting from the levels of hundred nanoseconds to one microsecond. Majority of primary studies aim at optimizing communication latency in their approach, which is a key quality attribute in automotive and industrial automation applications today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Time-Sensitive Networking, TSN, 5G, TSN-5G, URLLC, Industry 4.0
National Category
Communication Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62062 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2023.102852 (DOI)000956098500001 ()2-s2.0-85149863981 (Scopus ID)
Projects
PROVIDENT
Funder
Vinnova, 16533
Available from: 2023-03-13 Created: 2023-03-13 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved
Rabet, I., Álvarez, I., Fotouhi, H. & Ashjaei, S. M. (2023). Demo Abstract: Towards Interoperability in a Hybrid TSN/6TiSCH Network. In: SenSys 2023 - Proceedings of the 21st ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensors Systems: . Paper presented at 21st ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensors Systems, SenSys 2023. Istanbul. 13 November 2023 through 15 November 2023 (pp. 500-501). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demo Abstract: Towards Interoperability in a Hybrid TSN/6TiSCH Network
2023 (English)In: SenSys 2023 - Proceedings of the 21st ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensors Systems, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2023, p. 500-501Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a growing interest in increasing the flexibility and the mobility of industrial infrastructures to support novel industrial applications. To support this change, industrial networks must provide real-time guarantees while integrating a great variety of traffic over a cohesive network infrastructure. Specifically, there is special interest in the integration of wired and wireless communications in the industrial domain. We present a solution that integrates a Time-Sensitive Networking Ethernet network with a low-power 6TiSCH IoT network and discuss the implementation alternatives and their implications on delay and resource consumption. The main goal is to experimentally identify the research challenges and necessary enhancements for interoperability between constrained battery-driven wireless communication with the time sensitive wired networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2023
Keywords
IEEE 802.15.4, interoperability, TSCH, TSN, IEEE Standards, Low power electronics, Titanium compounds, Cohesive networks, Ethernet networks, Ieee 802.15.4/zigbee, Industrial infrastructure, Industrial networks, Network infrastructure, Real time guarantees, Wired and wireless communications
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66664 (URN)10.1145/3625687.3628415 (DOI)2-s2.0-85192731361 (Scopus ID)9798400704147 (ISBN)
Conference
21st ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensors Systems, SenSys 2023. Istanbul. 13 November 2023 through 15 November 2023
Available from: 2024-05-22 Created: 2024-05-22 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Biabani, M., Yazdani, N. & Fotouhi, H. (2023). Developing a Novel Hierarchical VPLS Architecture Using Q-in-Q Tunneling in Router and Switch Design. Computers, 12(9), Article ID 180.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a Novel Hierarchical VPLS Architecture Using Q-in-Q Tunneling in Router and Switch Design
2023 (English)In: Computers, E-ISSN 2073-431X, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) is an ethernet-based Virtual Private Network (VPN) service that provides multipoint-to-multipoint Layer 2 VPN service, where each site is geographically dispersed across a Wide Area Network (WAN). The adaptability and scalability of VPLS are limited despite the fact that they provide a flexible solution for connecting geographically dispersed sites. Furthermore, the construction of tunnels connecting customer locations that are separated by great distances adds a substantial amount of latency to the user traffic transportation. To address these issues, a novel Hierarchical VPLS (H-VPLS) architecture has been developed using 802.1Q tunneling (also known as Q-in-Q) on high-speed and commodity routers to satisfy the additional requirements of new VPLS applications. The Vector Packet Processing (VPP) performs as the router’s data plane, and FRRouting (FRR), an open-source network routing software suite, acts as the router’s control plane. The router is designed to seamlessly forward VPLS packets using the Request For Comments (RFCs) 4762, 4446, 4447, 4448, and 4385 from The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) integrated with VPP. In addition, the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is used for Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Pseudo-Wire (PW) signaling in FRR. The proposed mechanism has been implemented on a software-based router in the Linux environment and tested for its functionality, signaling, and control plane processes. The router is also implemented on commodity hardware for testing the functionality of VPLS in the real world. Finally, the analysis of the results verifies the efficiency of the proposed mechanism in terms of throughput, latency, and packet loss ratio.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023
Keywords
FRRouting (FRR), LDP, MPLS, Q-in-Q tunneling, Vector Packet Processing (VPP), Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64517 (URN)10.3390/computers12090180 (DOI)001073252500001 ()2-s2.0-85172786024 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-11 Created: 2023-10-11 Last updated: 2023-10-18Bibliographically approved
Goossens, W., Mustefa, D., Scholle, D., Fotouhi, H. & Denil, J. (2023). Evaluating Edge Computing and Compression for Remote Cuff-Less Blood Pressure Monitoring. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 12(1), Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Edge Computing and Compression for Remote Cuff-Less Blood Pressure Monitoring
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, E-ISSN 2224-2708, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Remote health monitoring systems play an important role in the healthcare sector. Edge computing is a key enabler for realizing these systems, where it is required to collect big data while providing real-time guarantees. In this study, we focus on remote cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring through electrocardiogram (ECG) as a case study to evaluate the benefits of edge computing and compression. First, we investigate the state-of-the-art algorithms for BP estimation and ECG compression. Second, we develop a system to measure the ECG, estimate the BP, and store the results in the cloud with three different configurations: (i) estimation in the edge, (ii) estimation in the cloud, and (iii) estimation in the cloud with compressed transmission. Third, we evaluate the three approaches in terms of application latency, transmitted data volume, and power usage. In experiments with batches of 64 ECG samples, the edge computing approach has reduced average application latency by 15%, average power usage by 19%, and total transmitted volume by 85%, confirming that edge computing improves system performance significantly. Compressed transmission proved to be an alternative when network bandwidth is limited and edge computing is impractical.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
blood pressure estimation, cloud, compression, cuff-less, edge, health
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62032 (URN)10.3390/jsan12010002 (DOI)000941338600001 ()2-s2.0-85148715689 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-08 Created: 2023-03-08 Last updated: 2023-03-22Bibliographically approved
Rabet, I., Fotouhi, H., Alves, M., Vahabi, M. & Björkman, M. (2023). On the Deployment of Private Broadband Networks in Surface Mines. In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA: . Paper presented at 28th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation. , september, Article ID 193521.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Deployment of Private Broadband Networks in Surface Mines
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2023 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2023, Vol. september, article id 193521Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future mines are expected to be operated by increasingly autonomous construction equipment, requiring dependable intercommunication between control centers, human operators, and construction machines such as excavators, drill rigs, and scrapers. Achieving stable, reliable and timely communications in such harsh and ever-changing environments is quite challenging. However, the changes in the three-dimensional (3D) topography of the mine are mostly predictable and scheduled through mine planning methods, which consequently can be used for radio communications network planning, namely to dimension, orientate and locate Base Station (BS) antennas in the mine field. In this context, we consider BSs to exist in the form of fixed cells or Cell on Wheel (CoW). The former is deployed in fixed locations throughout a long-term mine operation, while the latter is expected to be moved based on the changes in the topology of the terrain. We present an optimization framework that builds on an evolutionary algorithm to plan private 5G networks based on a given mine plan, featuring both fixed and movable base stations. We assess how the changing terrain affects the  wireless coverage on the mine's surface and demonstrate that, in certain scenarios, CoWs improve the average Signal-to-Interference & Noise Ratio (SINR) by 1 to 10 dB.

National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64146 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275708 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175492294 (Scopus ID)
Conference
28th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation
Projects
https://www.mdu.se/en/malardalen-university/research/research-projects/greener-intelligent-energy-management-in-connected-construction-sites
Available from: 2023-09-01 Created: 2023-09-01 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
Satka, Z., Pantzar, D., Magnusson, A., Ashjaei, S. M., Fotouhi, H., Sjödin, M., . . . Mubeen, S. (2022). Developing a Translation Technique for Converged TSN-5G Communication. In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS: . Paper presented at 18th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems, WFCS 2022, 27 April 2022 through 29 April 2022 (pp. 103-110). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a Translation Technique for Converged TSN-5G Communication
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2022 (English)In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 103-110Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a set of IEEE standards based on switched Ethernet that aim at meeting high-bandwidth and low-latency requirements in wired communication. TSN implementations typically do not support integration of wireless networks, which limits their applicability to many industrial applications that need both wired and wire-less communication. The development of 5G and its promised Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communication (URLLC) in-tegrated with TSN would offer a promising solution to meet the bandwidth, latency and reliability requirements in these industrial applications. In order to support such an integration, we propose a technique to translate the traffic between TSN and 5G communication technologies. As a proof of concept, we implement the translation technique in a well-known TSN simulator, namely NeSTiNg, that is based on the OMNeT ++ tool. Furthermore, we evaluate the proposed technique using an automotive industrial use case. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
3GPP, 5G, TSN, TSN Translator, URLLC, Bandwidth, IEEE Standards, High bandwidth, High-low, Low latency, Low-latency communication, Switched ethernet, Time sensitive networking, Time sensitive networking translator, Ultra-reliable and low-latency communication, 5G mobile communication systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-59265 (URN)10.1109/WFCS53837.2022.9779191 (DOI)000843639500014 ()2-s2.0-85131818621 (Scopus ID)9781665410861 (ISBN)
Conference
18th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems, WFCS 2022, 27 April 2022 through 29 April 2022
Available from: 2022-06-23 Created: 2022-06-23 Last updated: 2023-03-14Bibliographically approved
Biabani, M., Yazdani, N. & Fotouhi, H. (2022). EE-MSWSN: Energy-Efficient Mobile Sink Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 9(19), 18360-18377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EE-MSWSN: Energy-Efficient Mobile Sink Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks
2022 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 9, no 19, p. 18360-18377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data gathering using mobile sink (MS) based on rendezvous points (RPs) is a need in several Internet of Things (IoT) applications. However, devising energy-efficient and reliable tour planning strategies for MS is a challenging issue, considering that sensors have finite buffer space and disparate sensing rates. This is even more challenging in delay-tolerant networks, where it is more desirable to select the shortest traveling path. There exist several algorithms on MS scheduling, which are based on hierarchical protocols for data forwarding and data collection. These algorithms are lacking efficient tradeoff between the Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements in terms of energy efficiency, reliability, and computational cost. Besides, these algorithms have shown high packet losses while jointly performing MS tour planning and buffer overflow management. To address these limitations, we propose EE-MSWSN, an energy-efficient MS wireless sensor network that reliably collects data by implementing efficient buffer management. It forms novel clustered tree-based structures to cover all the network, and select each RP based on 1) hop count; 2) number of accumulated data in each clustered tree; and 3) distance to the stationary sink. The extensive simulation results verify that the EE-MSWSN minimizes tour length for various network configurations and incurs less energy consumption while reliably gathering data without packet losses as compared with existing protocols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2022
Keywords
Sensors, Wireless sensor networks, Internet of Things, Reliability, Energy efficiency, Quality of service, Energy consumption, mobile sink (MS), path planning, wireless sensor network (WSN)
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-60076 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2022.3160377 (DOI)000857705300020 ()2-s2.0-85126721899 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-05 Created: 2022-10-05 Last updated: 2022-11-17Bibliographically approved
Selvaraju, S. P., Balador, A., Fotouhi, H. & Björkman, M. (2022). Performance Analysis of SDN based network management in Content Centric Networks for WSN. Västerås: Mälardalen Real-Time Research Centre (MRTC)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Analysis of SDN based network management in Content Centric Networks for WSN
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen Real-Time Research Centre (MRTC), 2022
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-58060 (URN)MDH-MRTC-341/2022-1-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2022-04-20 Created: 2022-04-20 Last updated: 2022-04-22Bibliographically approved
Satka, Z., Ashjaei, S. M., Fotouhi, H., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2022). QoS-MAN: A Novel QoS Mapping Algorithm for TSN-5G Flows. In: 2022 IEEE 28TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS (RTCSA 2022): . Paper presented at 28th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), Taipei, Taoiwan, 23-25 August, 2022 (pp. 220-227). IEEE COMPUTER SOC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoS-MAN: A Novel QoS Mapping Algorithm for TSN-5G Flows
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2022 (English)In: 2022 IEEE 28TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS (RTCSA 2022), IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2022, p. 220-227Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Integrating wired Ethernet networks, such as Time-Sensitive Networks (TSN), to 5G cellular network requires a flow management technique to efficiently map TSN traffic to 5G Quality-of-Service (QoS) flows. The 3GPP Release 16 provides a set of predefined QoS characteristics, such as priority level, packet delay budget, and maximum data burst volume, which can be used for the 5G QoS flows. Within this context, mapping TSN traffic flows to 5G QoS flows in an integrated TSN-5G network is of paramount importance as the mapping can significantly impact on the end-to-end QoS in the integrated network. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient mapping algorithm to map different TSN traffic flows to 5G QoS flows. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first QoS-aware mapping algorithm based on the application constraints used to exchange flows between TSN and 5G network domains. We evaluate the proposed mapping algorithm on synthetic scenarios with random sets of constraints on deadline, jitter, bandwidth, and packet loss rate. The evaluation results show that the proposed mapping algorithm can fulfill over 90% of the applications' constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2022
Series
IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, ISSN 1533-2306
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-60673 (URN)10.1109/RTCSA55878.2022.00030 (DOI)000877324400024 ()2-s2.0-85141408527 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-5344-8 (ISBN)
Conference
28th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), Taipei, Taoiwan, 23-25 August, 2022
Available from: 2022-11-21 Created: 2022-11-21 Last updated: 2023-04-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5590-0784

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