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Ljungblad, J. (2017). High performance breath alcohol analysis. (Doctoral dissertation). Västerås: Malardalen University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High performance breath alcohol analysis
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alcohol breath testing on a larger scale will save lives. Alcohol intake affects the human body by significantly longer response time to external stimuli. In demanding situations where the senses need to be on alert a prolonged reaction time can be the difference between life and death, both for the intoxicated subject and for surrounding  individuals.

The aims of this thesis include investigations of a new type of breath alcohol sensor, designed for operation without a mouthpiece, both with regards to sensor performance as well as usability in relation to various breath  alcohol  screening applications.

In many situations where breath alcohol screening is suitable, there is a need for quick and easy use. The instrument should interfere as little as possible with the regular routines and procedures. One such task is driving. To accommodate for these needs in an in-vehicle application, the breath alcohol sensing system must be seamlessly installed in the vehicle and not interfere with the normal behavior of the sober driver. Driving is also a task requiring high level of concentration over a prolonged period of time. In the U.S. alone thousands of lives are annually lost in accidents where the driver was under the influence of  alcohol.  Similar numbers have been recorded for Europe. The potential for a system handling the needs for ease-of-use is huge and may result in successful products.

The results presented within this thesis provide experimental evidence of sufficient sensor performance for screening applications with an instrument operating without a mouthpiece. Smarter calculation methods were also shown to be a feasible path to improved measurement reliability. Important steps towards an even more passive solution for in-vehicle screening is also presented. Experiments showed that given enough time and sensor resolution, passive alcohol detection systems are feasible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Malardalen University Press, 2017
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 240
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36634 (URN)978-91-7485-350-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-11-15, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2017-10-12Bibliographically approved
Ljungblad, J., Hök, B. & Ekström, M. (2016). Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening. Sensors, 16(4), Article ID 469.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening
2016 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 16, no 4, article id 469Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone.

National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29905 (URN)10.3390/s16040469 (DOI)000375153700049 ()27043576 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84962424447 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Ljungblad, J. (2016). High Performance Breath Analysis. (Licentiate dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Performance Breath Analysis
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alcohol breath testing on a larger scale will save lives. Alcohol abuse is a major contributor to death and disease. Alcohol intake affects the human body by significantly longer response time to external stimuli. In situations where the senses need to be on alert this delay can be the difference between life and death. To make the alcohol breath test more available in everyday use, the mouthpiece has been removed. Instead, the exhaled alcohol is measured directly in a diluted sample. The dilution can be accounted for by simultaneous measurement of an endogenous tracer gas. Because of the lack of a mouthpiece several additional factors influence the alcohol measurement, e.g. the obvious lower abundance of analyte gas, shorter time of analysis and physiological aspects of the tracer gas. My studies include sensor development and validation through laboratory experiments as well as human subject studies. Several sensor parameters are crucial for the functionality of the alcohol detection system and are in need of careful investigation. Human behaviour and physiology also needs further understanding. A better understanding of the system provides vital knowledge for the design of smarter algorithms. Planning, conducting and evaluation of these studies lie within the scope of the licentiate thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2016. p. 87
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 225
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29883 (URN)978-91-7485-249-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-01-28, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2015-12-11 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2017-01-03Bibliographically approved
Hök, B., Pettersson, H. & Ljungblad, J. (2015). Unobtrusive breath alcohol sensing system. In: The 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles ESV2015: . Paper presented at The 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles ESV2015, 8-11 Jun 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden. , Paper Number 15-0458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unobtrusive breath alcohol sensing system
2015 (English)In: The 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles ESV2015, 2015, Vol. Paper Number 15-0458Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although the vast majority of vehicle drivers are sober, drunk driving remains to be a major contributor to fatal accidents. Massive deployment of unobtrusive breath alcohol sensing systems could potentially save tens of thousands of lives worldwide every year by preventing drunk driving [1]. The work reported here is ultimately aiming at such a system. The technical performance of the present sensing system with respect to automotive requirements is summarized, and new results towards unobtrusive breath alcohol determination within vehicle compartments are presented. Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) can be determined unobtrusively if (i) the sensing system provides real-time signals with adequate accuracy corresponding to the local concentrations of both alcohol and a tracer gas, e g CO2, (ii) the dilution of the breath is not excessive in relation to background concentrations, (iii) the sensor location can be seamlessly integrated into the interior of a vehicle cabin. All three of these aspects are addressed in the present paper. More than a hundred prototypes based on infrared spectroscopy were fabricated and subjected to automotive qualification tests in the full temperature range -40 … +85?C. In the majority of tests, adequate performance was noted. Measures are now being taken to fill remaining performance gaps. Test results with human subjects were positive and in accordance with expectations with respect to physiological variations. In-vehicle tests showed that for the best sensor position, passive breath samples allowed BrAC to be determined at a resolution of 2-4% of the US legal limit, providing proof-of-principle for unobtrusive testing. Nevertheless, vehicle integration remains to be the major technological challenge to the objective of deployment on a large scale of unobtrusive driver breath alcohol determination. The feasibility of unobtrusive breath alcohol determination in vehicles, and adequate performance of a sensor system based on infrared spectroscopy have been experimentally demonstrated. The alcohol sensing system may advantageously be integrated into vehicles, and may also be combined with other technologies to monitor driver impairment.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29658 (URN)
Conference
The 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles ESV2015, 8-11 Jun 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved
Ljungblad, J., Hök, B. & Ekström, M. (2014). Critical Performance of a New Breath Alcohol Analyzer for Screening Applications. In: Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), 2014 IEEE Ninth International Conference on: . Paper presented at IEEE Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP) Singapore 21-24 April 2014 (pp. 1-4).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical Performance of a New Breath Alcohol Analyzer for Screening Applications
2014 (English)In: Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), 2014 IEEE Ninth International Conference on, 2014, p. 1-4Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In screening applications there is a need forimproved breath alcohol analyzers. Accuracy, specificity,usability, and through-put are critical to the device performance. Objective: To characterize the critical performance of a newcontactless breath alcohol analyzer. Methods: The device ischaracterized by measurements using artificial breath gas andhuman subjects. Breath sampling is performed in ambient airusing carbon dioxide as a biomarker. Results: Resolution andinter-individual variation, response time, and specificity wereshown to meet the requirements of industrial standards. Thefeasibility of contactless measurement was demonstrated. Conclusions: The new device exhibits sufficient performance inmoderately diluted breath samples. Further work is underway toreach the objective of unobtrusive breath alcohol analysis.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29903 (URN)10.1109/ISSNIP.2014.6827626 (DOI)000356411200040 ()2-s2.0-84903733096 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-2842-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP) Singapore 21-24 April 2014
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved
Hök, B., Ljungblad, J., Kaisdotter Andersson (Jonsson), A., Ekström, M. & Enlund, M. (2014). Unobtrusive and Highly Accurate Breath Alcohol Analysis Enabled by Improved Methodology and Technology. Journal of Forensic Investigation, 2(4), 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unobtrusive and Highly Accurate Breath Alcohol Analysis Enabled by Improved Methodology and Technology
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Forensic Investigation, ISSN 2330-0396, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study objective was to evaluate a novel method and technology for unobtrusive determination of breath alcohol in relation to current industrial accuracy standards. The methodology uses carbon dioxide as a tracer gas detected by sensor technology based on infrared spectroscopy. Part one of the investigation was to analyse the performance of hand-held prototype devices and included tests of resolution, unit-to-unit variation during calibration, response to alcohol containing gas pulses created with a wet gas simulator, and cross sensitivity to other substances. In part two of the study, 30 human participants provided 1465 breath tests in both unobtrusive and obtrusive use modes. The results of both parts of the study indicate that the prototype devices exceeded present industrial accuracy requirements. The proposed methodology and technology eliminate the previous contradiction between unobtrusiveness and high accuracy.

Keywords
Breath alcohol analysis, Infrared spectroscopy, Accuracy, Unobtrusiveness
National Category
Engineering and Technology Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28102 (URN)10.13188/2330-0396.1000016 (DOI)
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsESS-H - Embedded Sensor Systems for Health Research Profile
Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-08 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3286-2572

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