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Gore, R. N., Lisova, E., Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2020). In Sync with Today's Industrial System Clocks. In: 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems and NETworkS, COMSNETS 2020: . Paper presented at 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems and NETworkS, COMSNETS 2020, 7 January 2020 through 11 January 2020 (pp. 785-790). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Sync with Today's Industrial System Clocks
2020 (English)In: 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems and NETworkS, COMSNETS 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, p. 785-790Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Synchronization is essential for correct and consistent operation of automation systems. Synchronized devices accurately time-stamp the events and enable timely communication of messages over a communication network. In absence of a common time base, critical functions of automation systems cannot be carried out in a safe fashion. Unsynchronized systems may lead to malfunctions such as false alarms, wrong decisions and erroneous outcomes resulting into serious showstopper for plant operations. Despite technical advances in synchronization, industrial automation systems have lagged compared to telecommunication and financial services in utilization of latest synchronization technology. Thus, there is a need to investigate the adoption of synchronization in industrial networks, its current state and implementation problems. We carried out an extensive literature search in a structured way to study the evolution of synchronization in automation systems. We also investigated today's industrial automation systems and their network topologies to get insight into the synchronization techniques and mechanisms being used. As an outcome of study, the paper highlights the challenges related to synchronization in existing automation networks that need to be addressed in the immediate and short-term future. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020
Keywords
Building Automation, Factory Automation, Heterogeneous communication, IEEE 1588, IEEE 802.1AS, IEEE C37.238, Industrial automation, Industrial networks, Last-mile connectivity, NTP, PTP, Secured synchronization, SNTP, Substation Automation, Synchronization, IEEE Standards, Intelligent buildings, Telecommunication services
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47458 (URN)10.1109/COMSNETS48256.2020.9027323 (DOI)2-s2.0-85082169343 (Scopus ID)9781728131870 (ISBN)
Conference
2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems and NETworkS, COMSNETS 2020, 7 January 2020 through 11 January 2020
Note

Conference code: 158297; Export Date: 2 April 2020; Conference Paper

Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
Mubeen, S., Lisova, E. & Feljan, A. V. (2019). A Perspective on Ensuring Predictability in Time-critical and Secure Cooperative Cyber Physical Systems. In: 2019 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY (ICIT): . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (IEEE ICIT), FEB 13-15, 2019, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA (pp. 1379-1384). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Perspective on Ensuring Predictability in Time-critical and Secure Cooperative Cyber Physical Systems
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY (ICIT), IEEE , 2019, p. 1379-1384Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent advancement in the development of embedded systems and in the integration of operational and industrial technologies has accelerated the progress of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) development. Cooperation of such systems allows to achieve new functionalities. However, often these systems are time-critical; hence, the developers of these systems are required to provide guarantees of the systems' properties, such as predictability and security. In this paper, we start by glancing through the research devoted to developing time predictable and secure embedded systems. Thereon, we extend the discussion to time-critical and secure CPSs and point out the challenges related to ensuring predictability during their development. In this context, we emphasize the importance of security as a prerequisite for time predictability. Moreover, we identify the gaps in the state of the art and describe our view on ensuring predictability in time-critical and secure CPSs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ISSN 2643-2978
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46348 (URN)10.1109/ICIT.2019.8754962 (DOI)000490548300218 ()2-s2.0-85069039253 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-6376-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (IEEE ICIT), FEB 13-15, 2019, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Available from: 2019-12-13 Created: 2019-12-13 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., El Hachem, J. & Causevic, A. (2019). Investigating attack propagation in a SoS via a service decomposition. In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services, SERVICES 2019: . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services, SERVICES 2019, 8 July 2019 through 13 July 2019 (pp. 9-14). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating attack propagation in a SoS via a service decomposition
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services, SERVICES 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 9-14Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A term systems of systems (SoS) refers to a setup in which a number of independent systems collaborate to create a value that each of them is unable to achieve independently. Complexity of a SoS structure is higher compared to its constitute systems that brings challenges in analyzing its critical properties such as security. An SoS can be seen as a set of connected systems or services that needs to be adequately protected. Communication between such systems or services can be considered as a service itself, and it is the paramount for establishment of a SoS as it enables connections, dependencies, and a cooperation. Given that reliable and predictable communication contributes directly to a correct functioning of an SoS, communication as a service is one of the main assets to consider. Protecting it from malicious adversaries should be one of the highest priorities within SoS design and operation. This study aims to investigate the attack propagation problem in terms of service-guarantees through the decomposition into sub-services enriched with preconditions and postconditions at the service levels. Such analysis is required as a prerequisite for an efficient SoS risk assessment at the design stage of the SoS development life cycle to protect it from possibly high impact attacks capable of affecting safety of systems and humans using the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Attack propagation, Autonomous quarry, Security, Service, System decomposition, System of systems, Life cycle, Risk assessment, Critical properties, Design and operations, Independent systems, Malicious adversaries, Service decompositions
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46539 (URN)10.1109/SERVICES.2019.00017 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072778028 (Scopus ID)9781728138510 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 IEEE World Congress on Services, SERVICES 2019, 8 July 2019 through 13 July 2019
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Causevic, A., Lisova, E., Ashjaei, S. M. & Ashgar, S. U. (2019). On incorporating security parameters in service level agreements. In: CLOSER 2019 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science: . Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, CLOSER 2019, 2 May 2019 through 4 May 2019 (pp. 48-57). SciTePress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On incorporating security parameters in service level agreements
2019 (English)In: CLOSER 2019 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, SciTePress , 2019, p. 48-57Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With development of cloud computing new ways for easy, on-demand, Internet-based access to computing resources have emerged. In such context a Service Level Agreement (SLA) enables contractual agreements between service providers and users. Given an SLA, service users are able to establish trust in that the service outcome corresponds to what they have demanded during the service negotiation process. However, an SLA provides a limited support outside of basic Quality of Service (QoS) parameters, especially when it comes to security. We find security as an important factor to be included in adjusting an SLA according to user defined objectives. Incorporating it in an SLA is challenging due to difficulty to provide complete and quantifiable metrics, thus we propose to focus on a systematic way of addressing security using the security process. In this paper we investigate ways in which security might be incorporated already in the service negotiation process and captured in an SLA. We propose a corresponding process to develop and maintain an SLA that considers both design-, and run-time. To demonstrate the approach we built upon the existing SLAC language and extend its syntax to support security. An example of a service being provided with security guarantees illustrates the concept.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SciTePress, 2019
Keywords
Cloud computing, Run-time monitoring, Security, Security process, Service level agreement, SLAC, Outsourcing, Contractual agreements, Negotiation process, Quality of Service parameters, Runtime Monitoring, Security parameters, Service Level Agreements, Quality of service
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44880 (URN)10.5220/0007658000480057 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067500149 (Scopus ID)9789897583650 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, CLOSER 2019, 2 May 2019 through 4 May 2019
Note

Conference code: 148430; Export Date: 11 July 2019; Conference Paper

Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Sljivo, I. & Causevic, A. (2019). Safety and Security Co-Analyses: A Systematic Literature Review. IEEE Systems Journal, 13(3), 2189-2200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety and Security Co-Analyses: A Systematic Literature Review
2019 (English)In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 2189-2200Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Latest technological trends lead toward systems connected to public networks even in critical domains. Bringing together safety and security work is becoming imperative, as a connected safety-critical system is not safe if it is not secure. The main objective of this study is to investigate the current status of safety and security co-analysis in system engineering by conducting a systematic literature review. The steps of the review are the following: the research questions identification; agreement upon a search string; applying the search string to chosen databases; a selection criterion formulation for the relevant publications filtering; selected papers categorization and analysis. We focused on the early system development stages and identified 33 relevant publications categorized as follows: combined safety and security approaches that consider the mutual influence of safety and security; safety-informed security approaches that consider influence of safety on security; and security-informed safety approaches that consider influence of security on safety. The results showed that a number of identified approaches are driven by needs in fast developing application areas, e.g., automotive, while works focusing on combined analysis are mostly application area independent. Overall, the study shows that safety and security co-analysis is still a developing domain.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43114 (URN)10.1109/JSYST.2018.2881017 (DOI)000482628500012 ()2-s2.0-85072714471 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 692529 Vinnova
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E. & Girs, S. (2019). The Challenge of Safety Tactics Synchronization for Cooperative Systems. In: International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2018: . Paper presented at International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2018, 06 Sep 2018, Barcelona, Spain (pp. 50-58).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Challenge of Safety Tactics Synchronization for Cooperative Systems
2019 (English)In: International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2018, 2019, p. 50-58Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Given rapid progress in integrating operational and industrial technologies and recent increase in the level of automation in safety-related systems, cooperative cyber-physical systems are emerging in a self-contained area requiring new approaches for addressing their critical properties such as safety and security. The notion of tactics is used to describe a relation between a system input and its corresponding response. Cooperative functionalities often rely on wireless communication and incoherent behavior of different wireless channels makes it challenging to achieve harmonization in deployment of systems' tactics. In this work we focus on safety tactics for cooperative cyber-physical systems as a response to inputs related to both safety and security, i.e., we are interested in security informed safety, and formulate a challenge of synchronization of safety tactics between the cooperating systems. To motivate the requirement on such synchronization we consider a car platoon, i.e., a set of cooperative vehicles, as an example and illustrate possible hazards arising from unsynchronized tactics deployment.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 11552
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40894 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-16874-2_4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064874474 (Scopus ID)9783030168735 (ISBN)
Conference
International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2018, 06 Sep 2018, Barcelona, Spain
Projects
Future factories in the CloudSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
El Hachem, J., Sedaghatbaf, A., Lisova, E. & Causevic, A. (2019). Using Bayesian Networks for a Cyberattacks Propagation Analysis in Systems-of-Systems. In: : . Paper presented at 26th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC 2019; Putrajaya; Malaysia; 2 December 2019 through 5 December 2019 (pp. 363-370).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Bayesian Networks for a Cyberattacks Propagation Analysis in Systems-of-Systems
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

System of Systems (SoS) represent a set of independent Constituent Systems (CS) that collaborate in order to provide functionalities that they are unable to achieve independently. We consider SoS as a set of connected services that needs to be adequately protected. The integration of these independent, evolutionary and distributed systems, intensifies SoS complexity and emphasizes the behavior uncertainty, which makes an SoS security analysis a critical challenge. One of the major priorities when designing SoS, is to analyze the unknown dependencies among CS services and vulnerabilities leading to potential cyberattacks. The aim of this work is to investigate how Software Engineering approaches could be leveraged to analyze the cyberattack propagation problem within an SoS. Such analysis is essential for an efficient SoS risk assessment performed early at the SoS design phase and required to protect the SoS from possibly high impact attacks affecting its safety and security. In order to achieve our objective, we present a model-driven analysis approach, based on Bayesian Networks, a sensitivity analysis and Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) with aim to discover potential cyberattacks propagation and estimate the probability of a security failure and its impact on SoS services. W

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45500 (URN)10.1109/APSEC48747.2019.00056 (DOI)000517102200046 ()2-s2.0-85078167773 (Scopus ID)9781728146485 (ISBN)
Conference
26th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC 2019; Putrajaya; Malaysia; 2 December 2019 through 5 December 2019
Projects
SAFSEC-CPS -- Securing the safety of autonomous cyber-physical systemsSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2019-10-28 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2020-03-19Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Hänninen, K., Thane, H. & Hansson, H. (2018). A Systematic Way to Incorporate Security in Safety Analysis. In: Proceedings - 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018: . Paper presented at 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018; Parc Alvisse, Hotel Luxembourg City; Luxembourg; 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018 (pp. 166-171). Luxembourg, Luxemburg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Systematic Way to Incorporate Security in Safety Analysis
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018, Luxembourg, Luxemburg, 2018, p. 166-171Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today's systems are being built to connect to public or semi-public networks, are able to communicate with other systems, e.g., in the context of Internet-of-Things (IoT), involve multiple stakeholders, have dynamic system reconfigurations, and operate in increasingly unpredictable environments. In such complex systems, assuring safety and security in a continuous and joint effort is a major challenge, not the least due to the increasing number of attack surfaces arising from the increased connectivity. In this paper we present an approach that aims to bridge the gap between safety and security engineering. The potential of the approach is illustrated on the example of E-gas system, discussing the cases when unintentional faults as well as malicious attacks are taken into consideration when assuring safety of the described system. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luxembourg, Luxemburg: , 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39268 (URN)10.1109/DSN-W.2018.00058 (DOI)000494277000045 ()2-s2.0-85051231991 (Scopus ID)9781538655955 (ISBN)
Conference
48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018; Parc Alvisse, Hotel Luxembourg City; Luxembourg; 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018
Projects
Closing the safety-security gap in software intensive systemsSAFSEC-CPS -- Securing the safety of autonomous cyber-physical systemsSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2019-12-02Bibliographically approved
Šurković, A., Hanić, D., Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Lundqvist, K., Wenslandt, D. & Falk, C. (2018). Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, STRIVE, and WAISE 2018 co-located with 37th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2018; Västerås; Sweden; 18 September 2018 through 21 September 2018 (pp. 31-41). Springer Verlag, 11094
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process
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2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11094, p. 31-41Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Systems of systems (SoS) are built as a collection of systems capable of fulfilling their own function, as well as contributing to other functionalities. They are expected to increase production efficiency and possibly decrease human involvement in harmful environments, and in many cases such systems are safety-critical. For SoS it is a paramount to provide both safety and security assurance. It is not sufficient to analyze and provide assurance of these properties independently due to their mutual connection. Hence, a joint effort addressing safety and security that provides joint guarantees on both properties, is required. In this paper we provide a safety and security assurance argument by incorporating an adversary point of view, and identify potential failures coming from the security domain that might lead to an already identified set of hazards. In this way system assets, vulnerabilities and ways to exploit them can be assessed. As an outcome mitigation strategies coming from security considerations can be captured by the safety requirements. The approach is illustrated on an autonomous quarry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 11094
Keywords
Safety engineering, Systems engineering, Increase productions, Mitigation strategy, Potential failures, Safety and securities, Safety requirements, Security considerations, Security domains, Systems of systems, System of systems
National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41127 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99229-7_4 (DOI)000458807000004 ()2-s2.0-85053870453 (Scopus ID)9783319992280 (ISBN)
Conference
ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, STRIVE, and WAISE 2018 co-located with 37th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2018; Västerås; Sweden; 18 September 2018 through 21 September 2018
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E. (2018). Monitoring for Securing Clock Synchronization. (Doctoral dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring for Securing Clock Synchronization
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In today's society, more and more embedded computer systems are connecting. There are many different types of embedded systems including industrial networks, Internet of Things (IoT), distributed control systems, connected vehicles, etc. Most such cyber-physical systems (CPS), regardless of their specifics, have a communication part that enables data exchange between system entities and external entities. Today, many commercial systems adopt heterogeneous solutions including a combination of wired and wireless communication. Using both technologies together brings benefits in terms of flexibility and reliability, but it also imposes new challenges, such as maintaining system security. Security of connected CPS therefore becomes paramount to address.

One of the most critical properties of CPS is related to timing, as the vast majority of all CPS have real-time requirements due to interaction with a physical process, and communication therefore follows some kind of schedule with deadlines. In time-triggered networks, transmissions occur at pre-defined instants in time, but also in event-driven communication, data usefulness can be based on a timestamp, and consequently, to judge data validity and order of events, nodes need to interpret the received timestamp based on its own time. Both implementations make clock synchronization an essential network asset. Therefore, the first step in securing CPS is an investigation of ways to break clock synchronization. The next step is development of a solution that allows detection of malicious influence in the system and mitigates its consequences.

In this thesis, a threat model and a vulnerability analysis of clock synchronization is built upon IEEE 1588, a standard widely used in industry for establishing and maintaining clock synchronization. As a mitigation strategy, a distributed monitoring solution is proposed to detect if an adversary is influencing clock synchronization in the network. The monitor strategy is based on dynamic rules for switching between different network states: no adversary present, quarantine mode and attack detected. Next, game theory is used to investigate the interaction between an adversary and the monitor. Furthermore, the time chase between an adversary and the monitor is examined to see how the monitor strategy influences the outcome of the adversary actions. Safety and security interaction is also considered to see which implications the proposed security solution has on the safety domain. Finally, the monitoring approach is abstracted and analyzed for different estimations of channel reliability to investigate the applicability of the solution in different settings, and as a result a methodology for black channel state manager design is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2018
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 256
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38783 (URN)978-91-7485-378-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-16, Gamma, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2018-0996

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