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Mubeen, S., Lisova, E. & Vulgarakis Feljan, A. (2019). A Perspective on Ensuring Predictability in Time-critical and Secure Cooperative Cyber Physical Systems. In: 20th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology ICIT 2019: . Paper presented at 20th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology ICIT 2019, 13 Feb 2019, Melbourne, Australia. Melbourne, Australia (20)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Perspective on Ensuring Predictability in Time-critical and Secure Cooperative Cyber Physical Systems
2019 (English)In: 20th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology ICIT 2019, Melbourne, Australia, 2019, no 20Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent advancement in the development of embedded systems and in the integration of operational and industrial technologies has accelerated the progress of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) development. Cooperation of such systems allows to achieve new functionalities. However, often these systems are time-critical; hence, the developers of these systems are required to provide guarantees of the systems' properties, such as predictability and security. In this paper, we start by glancing through the research devoted to developing time predictable and secure embedded systems. Thereon, we extend the discussion to time-critical and secure CPSs and point out the challenges related to ensuring predictability during their development. In this context, we emphasize the importance of security as a prerequisite for time predictability. Moreover, we identify the gaps in the state of the art and describe our view on ensuring predictability in time-critical and secure CPSs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Melbourne, Australia: , 2019
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41734 (URN)
Conference
20th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology ICIT 2019, 13 Feb 2019, Melbourne, Australia
Projects
DPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and ControlSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomyHERO: Heterogeneous systems - software-hardware integrationDESTINE: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software Utilizing Time Sensitive Networking
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Hänninen, K., Thane, H. & Hansson, H. (2018). A Systematic Way to Incorporate Security in Safety Analysis. In: Proceedings - 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018: . Paper presented at 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018; Parc Alvisse, Hotel Luxembourg City; Luxembourg; 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018 (pp. 166-171). Luxembourg, Luxemburg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Systematic Way to Incorporate Security in Safety Analysis
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018, Luxembourg, Luxemburg, 2018, p. 166-171Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today's systems are being built to connect to public or semi-public networks, are able to communicate with other systems, e.g., in the context of Internet-of-Things (IoT), involve multiple stakeholders, have dynamic system reconfigurations, and operate in increasingly unpredictable environments. In such complex systems, assuring safety and security in a continuous and joint effort is a major challenge, not the least due to the increasing number of attack surfaces arising from the increased connectivity. In this paper we present an approach that aims to bridge the gap between safety and security engineering. The potential of the approach is illustrated on the example of E-gas system, discussing the cases when unintentional faults as well as malicious attacks are taken into consideration when assuring safety of the described system. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luxembourg, Luxemburg: , 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39268 (URN)10.1109/DSN-W.2018.00058 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051231991 (Scopus ID)9781538655955 (ISBN)
Conference
48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018; Parc Alvisse, Hotel Luxembourg City; Luxembourg; 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018
Projects
Closing the safety-security gap in software intensive systemsSAFSEC-CPS -- Securing the safety of autonomous cyber-physical systemsSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Šurković, A., Hanić, D., Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Lundqvist, K., Wenslandt, D. & Falk, C. (2018). Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, STRIVE, and WAISE 2018 co-located with 37th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2018; Västerås; Sweden; 18 September 2018 through 21 September 2018 (pp. 31-41). Springer Verlag, 11094
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process
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2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11094, p. 31-41Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Systems of systems (SoS) are built as a collection of systems capable of fulfilling their own function, as well as contributing to other functionalities. They are expected to increase production efficiency and possibly decrease human involvement in harmful environments, and in many cases such systems are safety-critical. For SoS it is a paramount to provide both safety and security assurance. It is not sufficient to analyze and provide assurance of these properties independently due to their mutual connection. Hence, a joint effort addressing safety and security that provides joint guarantees on both properties, is required. In this paper we provide a safety and security assurance argument by incorporating an adversary point of view, and identify potential failures coming from the security domain that might lead to an already identified set of hazards. In this way system assets, vulnerabilities and ways to exploit them can be assessed. As an outcome mitigation strategies coming from security considerations can be captured by the safety requirements. The approach is illustrated on an autonomous quarry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 11094
Keywords
Safety engineering, Systems engineering, Increase productions, Mitigation strategy, Potential failures, Safety and securities, Safety requirements, Security considerations, Security domains, Systems of systems, System of systems
National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41127 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99229-7_4 (DOI)000458807000004 ()2-s2.0-85053870453 (Scopus ID)9783319992280 (ISBN)
Conference
ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, STRIVE, and WAISE 2018 co-located with 37th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2018; Västerås; Sweden; 18 September 2018 through 21 September 2018
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E. (2018). Monitoring for Securing Clock Synchronization. (Doctoral dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring for Securing Clock Synchronization
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In today's society, more and more embedded computer systems are connecting. There are many different types of embedded systems including industrial networks, Internet of Things (IoT), distributed control systems, connected vehicles, etc. Most such cyber-physical systems (CPS), regardless of their specifics, have a communication part that enables data exchange between system entities and external entities. Today, many commercial systems adopt heterogeneous solutions including a combination of wired and wireless communication. Using both technologies together brings benefits in terms of flexibility and reliability, but it also imposes new challenges, such as maintaining system security. Security of connected CPS therefore becomes paramount to address.

One of the most critical properties of CPS is related to timing, as the vast majority of all CPS have real-time requirements due to interaction with a physical process, and communication therefore follows some kind of schedule with deadlines. In time-triggered networks, transmissions occur at pre-defined instants in time, but also in event-driven communication, data usefulness can be based on a timestamp, and consequently, to judge data validity and order of events, nodes need to interpret the received timestamp based on its own time. Both implementations make clock synchronization an essential network asset. Therefore, the first step in securing CPS is an investigation of ways to break clock synchronization. The next step is development of a solution that allows detection of malicious influence in the system and mitigates its consequences.

In this thesis, a threat model and a vulnerability analysis of clock synchronization is built upon IEEE 1588, a standard widely used in industry for establishing and maintaining clock synchronization. As a mitigation strategy, a distributed monitoring solution is proposed to detect if an adversary is influencing clock synchronization in the network. The monitor strategy is based on dynamic rules for switching between different network states: no adversary present, quarantine mode and attack detected. Next, game theory is used to investigate the interaction between an adversary and the monitor. Furthermore, the time chase between an adversary and the monitor is examined to see how the monitor strategy influences the outcome of the adversary actions. Safety and security interaction is also considered to see which implications the proposed security solution has on the safety domain. Finally, the monitoring approach is abstracted and analyzed for different estimations of channel reliability to investigate the applicability of the solution in different settings, and as a result a methodology for black channel state manager design is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2018
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 256
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38783 (URN)978-91-7485-378-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-16, Gamma, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E. & Girs, S. (2018). The Challenge of Safety Tactics Synchronization for Cooperative Systems. In: International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2018: . Paper presented at International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2018, 06 Sep 2018, Barcelona, Spain.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Challenge of Safety Tactics Synchronization for Cooperative Systems
2018 (English)In: International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2018, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Given rapid progress in integrating operational and industrial technologies and recent increase in the level of automation in safety-related systems, cooperative cyber-physical systems are emerging in a self-contained area requiring new approaches for addressing their critical properties such as safety and security. The notion of tactics is used to describe a relation between a system input and its corresponding response. Cooperative functionalities often rely on wireless communication and incoherent behavior of different wireless channels makes it challenging to achieve harmonization in deployment of systems' tactics. In this work we focus on safety tactics for cooperative cyber-physical systems as a response to inputs related to both safety and security, i.e., we are interested in security informed safety, and formulate a challenge of synchronization of safety tactics between the cooperating systems. To motivate the requirement on such synchronization we consider a car platoon, i.e., a set of cooperative vehicles, as an example and illustrate possible hazards arising from unsynchronized tactics deployment.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40894 (URN)
Conference
International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2018, 06 Sep 2018, Barcelona, Spain
Projects
Future factories in the CloudSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Surkovic, A., Hanic, D., Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Wenslandt, D. & Falk, C. (2018). Towards Attack Models in Autonomous Systems of Systems. In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018: . Paper presented at System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE 2018, 19 Jun 2018, Paris, France (pp. 583-585). , Article ID 8428701.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Attack Models in Autonomous Systems of Systems
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2018 (English)In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 583-585, article id 8428701Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39264 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2018.8428701 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052332713 (Scopus ID)9781538648766 (ISBN)
Conference
System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE 2018, 19 Jun 2018, Paris, France
Projects
SAFSEC-CPS -- Securing the safety of autonomous cyber-physical systemsSeCRA - Security Case Run-Time AdaptationSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E. & Causevic, A. (2018). Towards security case run-time adaptation by system decomposition into services. In: Proceedings: IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. Paper presented at IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (pp. 4102-4108). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards security case run-time adaptation by system decomposition into services
2018 (English)In: Proceedings: IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 4102-4108Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For interconnected and complex systems, security is paramount for establishing trust in their correctness and design adequacy. Thus, security needs to be assured and a corresponding security assurance case needs to be presented to system stakeholders, security assessors, as well as to system users. However, security is dynamic by its nature and to maintain its acceptable security level, frequent updates might be required. Traditionally, a security assurance case is built from scratch whenever a change occurs, however given the cost of resources needed for such a task, a more effective and less time consuming way of handling updates is needed. Hence, the challenge of security case run-time adaptation is considered in this work. We survey the state of the art in security assurance and security case development to refine the challenge and identify system decomposition as one the enablers for security case run-time adaptation. We propose to apply system decomposition in terms of services and use service choreographies to facilitate security case run-time adaptation. The proposed approach is illustrated on an E-gas example.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42758 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2018.8591530 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061528503 (Scopus ID)9781509066841 (ISBN)
Conference
IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Šljivo, I., Lisova, E. & Afshar, S. (2017). Agent-centred Approach for Assuring Ethics in Dependable Service Systems. In: 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017: . Paper presented at 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 25 Jun 2017, Honolulu, United States (pp. 51-58). , Article ID 8036721.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agent-centred Approach for Assuring Ethics in Dependable Service Systems
2017 (English)In: 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 2017, p. 51-58, article id 8036721Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As the world enters the information era, more and more dependable services controlling and even making our decisions are moved to the ubiquitous smart devices. While various standards are in place to impose the societal ethical norms on decision-making of those devices, the rights of the individuals to satisfy their own moral norms are not addressed with the same scrutiny. Hence, the right of the individuals to reason on their own and evaluate morality of certain decisions is at stake, as many decisions are outsourced from the user to the service providers and third party stakeholders without the user's full awareness of all the aspects of those decisions. In this work we propose an agent-centred approach for assuring ethics in dependable technological service systems. We build upon assurance of safety and security and propose the notion of ethics assurance case as a way to assure that individual users have been made aware of all the ethically challenging decisions that might be performed or enabled by the service provider. We propose a framework for identifying and categorising ethically challenging decisions, and documenting the ethics assurance case. We apply the framework on an illustrative example.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35502 (URN)10.1109/SERVICES.2017.18 (DOI)000425960800009 ()2-s2.0-85032373741 (Scopus ID)
Conference
13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 25 Jun 2017, Honolulu, United States
Projects
PRESS - Predictable Embedded Software SystemsRetNet - The European Industrial Doctorate Programme on Future Real-Time NetworksFuture factories in the Cloud
Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Uhlemann, E. & Björkman, M. (2017). Clock Synchronization Considerations in Security Informed Safety Assurance of Autonomous Systems of Systems. In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY: . Paper presented at 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society IECON 2017, 30 Oct 2017, Beijing, China (pp. 8385-8390).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clock Synchronization Considerations in Security Informed Safety Assurance of Autonomous Systems of Systems
2017 (English)In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 8385-8390Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37065 (URN)000427164808040 ()2-s2.0-85046668958 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1127-2 (ISBN)
Conference
43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society IECON 2017, 30 Oct 2017, Beijing, China
Projects
SafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless CommunicationSAFSEC-CPS -- Securing the safety of autonomous cyber-physical systems
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 692529 Vinnova
Available from: 2017-11-07 Created: 2017-11-07 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Uhlemann, E., Åkerberg, J. & Mats, B. (2017). Delay attack versus clock synchronization - A time chase. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT 2017, 23 March 2017 through 25 March 2017 (pp. 1136-1141).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delay attack versus clock synchronization - A time chase
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2017, p. 1136-1141Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Clock synchronization is one of the most essential assets for distributed real-time systems, as sensing, control and actuation require synchronized communication to meet real-time deadlines. We propose a distributed monitoring method to detect if an adversary is interfering with the clock synchronization protocol. The monitor uses certain network indicators and a set of rules to decide about switching between Normal, Quarantine or Attack Detected states. Further, we propose a way to define thresholds for decision-making based on theoretical analysis of the indicator values influenced by an attack. In addition, we formulate the problem of adversary influence detection in the network as a detection theory problem and use it to derive an additional indicator for the network monitor. Finally, we analyze the time chase between the monitor and an adversary to investigate which factors influence the final outcome. 

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35632 (URN)10.1109/ICIT.2017.7915522 (DOI)000404252400188 ()2-s2.0-85019646283 (Scopus ID)9781509053209 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT 2017, 23 March 2017 through 25 March 2017
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2017-07-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2018-0996

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