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Värnild, A., Tillgren, P. & Peter, L. (2020). What types of injuries did seriously injured pedestrians and cyclists receive in a Swedish urban region in the time period 2003–2017 when Vision Zero was implemented?. Public Health, 181, 59-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What types of injuries did seriously injured pedestrians and cyclists receive in a Swedish urban region in the time period 2003–2017 when Vision Zero was implemented?
2020 (English)In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 181, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives

The aim of the study is to examine what types of injuries that seriously injured pedestrians and cyclists received in urban road spaces from 2003 to 2017 in the Swedish region of Västmanland, when the road safety policy Vision Zero was implemented.

Study design

This is a cross-sectional data annually collected over a period of fifteen years.

Methods

Data from health care for 403 seriously injured pedestrians and cyclists were retrieved from the registry STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and cross-referenced with the National Road Database to see if any Vision Zero measures had previously been implemented at the crash location. The study includes injuries from both single and multiple crashes on roads, pavements, and tracks for walking and cycling (road space). Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses.

Results

Pedestrians were seriously injured in lower extremities more than cyclists, whereas more cyclists were seriously injured in the head. During the period, pedestriansꞌ head injuries decreased significantly, but injuries in lower extremities increased significantly. In addition, for cyclists, there was a shift from decreased probability of head injuries to increased probability of injuries in lower extremities related to increased age. For pedestrians, pavements/tracks were associated with a decreased probability of a majority of injury outcomes but for cyclists only for severe injury outcomes.

Conclusions

From 2003 to 2017, there was a shift among seriously injured pedestrians, with head injuries decreasing and injuries in lower extremities increasing. This shift was probably related to an ageing population in the region, given that increased age among both pedestrians and cyclists was associated with a decreased probability of head injuries but increased probability of injuries in lower extremities. On Vision Zero roads, there was a decreased probability of pedestrians receiving serious injury to more than one bodily region. An increased number of older people combined with policies for more active mobility such as walking and cycling are a challenge for road authorities in urban areas.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46787 (URN)10.1016/j.puhe.2019.11.019 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077913357 (Scopus ID)
Note

©2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Royal Society for Public Health. This is anopen access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Available from: 2020-01-23 Created: 2020-01-23 Last updated: 2020-04-30Bibliographically approved
Guberman, G. I., Robitaille, M.-P., Peter, L., Ptito, A., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E. & Hodgins, S. (2019). Are Traumatic Brain Injuries Associated With Criminality After Taking Account of Childhood Family Social Status and Disruptive Behaviors?. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 31(2), 123-131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are Traumatic Brain Injuries Associated With Criminality After Taking Account of Childhood Family Social Status and Disruptive Behaviors?
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2019 (English)In: The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, ISSN 0895-0172, E-ISSN 1545-7222, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The authors aimed to elucidate the links between traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and criminal convictions in a sample of 724 Canadian males with and without criminal records followed up to age 24. Methods: Prospectively collected data were analyzed to determine whether prior TBIs predicted subsequent criminal convictions after taking account of family social status (FSS) and childhood disruptive behaviors. At age 24, diagnoses of TBIs were extracted from health records and convictions from official criminal records. In childhood, teachers rated disruptive behaviors and parents reported FSS. Results: Proportionately more individuals with offender status than nonoffender status sustained a TBI from age 18 to age 24 but not before age 18. Individuals with offender status who had sustained a TBI before and after their first conviction were similar in numbers, were raised in families of low social status, and presented high levels of disruptive behaviors from age 6 to age 12. When FSS and childhood disruptive behaviors were included in multivariable regression models, sustaining a prior TBI was not associated with an increased risk of juvenile convictions for any type of crime, for violent crimes, for convictions for any crime or violent crime from age 18 to age 24, or for a first crime or a first violent crime from age 18 to age 24. Conclusions: Among males, there was no evidence that prior TBIs were associated with an increased risk of subsequent criminal convictions from age 12 to age 24 when taking account of FSS and childhood disruptive behaviors, although these latter factors may be associated with an increased prevalence of TBIs among adult offenders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PSYCHIATRIC PUBLISHING, INC, 2019
National Category
Other Medical Sciences Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43419 (URN)10.1176/appi.neuropsych.18040094 (DOI)000465440600004 ()30537914 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065114824 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Värnild, A., Tillgren, P. & Peter, L. (2019). Factors related to the increasing number of seriously injured cyclists and pedestrians in a Swedish urban region 2003–17. Journal of Public Health, 1-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors related to the increasing number of seriously injured cyclists and pedestrians in a Swedish urban region 2003–17
2019 (English)In: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1741-3842, E-ISSN 1741-3850, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The number of seriously injured unprotected road users has increased during implementation of a road safety policy Vision Zero. The aim of the study is to identify factors associated with the increase in serious injuries among cyclists and pedestrians (even single pedestrian accidents) that occurred in an urban road space in a Swedish region 2003–17. The urban road space includes roads, pavements and tracks for walking and cycling.

Methods

Data were retrieved from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and NVDB (National Road Database). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression with odds ratios for sex, age and part of road space were assessed.

Results

The number of seriously injured cyclists and pedestrians more than doubled from 2003 to 2017, with the greatest increase for pedestrians. Older age increased the probability of serious injury since 2012 for the group ≥ 80 years and since 2015 for the group 65–79 years. No significant effect of sex. Most injuries occur in areas not transformed by Vision Zero.

Conclusions

An increasing number of elderly persons in the generation born in the 1940s and increased life expectancy are important factors. There is a need to increase road safety measures that also promote active mobility.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46369 (URN)10.1093/pubmed/fdz064 (DOI)31211391 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-13 Created: 2019-12-13 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, E., Harder, M., Granlund, M., Holmström, I. K., Peter, L. & Golsäter, M. (2019). How culturally competent are Swedish school nurses? Relations between school nurses self-assessed cultural competence and demographic variables when encountering children of foreign origin. In: School nurses international, Stockholm, Sweden: . Paper presented at School nurses international, Stockholm, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How culturally competent are Swedish school nurses? Relations between school nurses self-assessed cultural competence and demographic variables when encountering children of foreign origin
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2019 (English)In: School nurses international, Stockholm, Sweden, 2019Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45438 (URN)
Conference
School nurses international, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2020-01-28Bibliographically approved
Värnild, A., Peter, L. & Tillgren, P. (2019). Incidence of seriously injured road users in a Swedish region, 2003-2014, from the perspective of a national road safety policy. BMC Public Health, 19(1), Article ID 1576.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incidence of seriously injured road users in a Swedish region, 2003-2014, from the perspective of a national road safety policy
2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1576Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Since 1997 Sweden has a policy for road safety called Vision Zero. Given that Vision Zero is mainly used to reduce fatalities among car occupants, the question has been raised by the research community whether a Vision Zero approach promotes health for all road traffic users. The objective is to measure target fulfilment of the national road safety policy for a Swedish region by examining incidence of serious injury during 2003-2014 in rural and urban road spaces with or without implemented measures. Methods: Data on seriously injured road users, defined as ISS > 8 (Injury Severity Score), were retrieved from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) together with data from NVDB (National Road Database). These data are used to describe where road users are seriously injured in relation to implemented national policy and using a conceptual model of a road space comprising roads, pavements and tracks for walking and cycling. Seriously injured road users in single and multiple crashes with and without vehicles are included. The development of the incidence is analysed for different road users and places in the road space. Results: Despite implemented road safety measures in the region, the incidence of seriously injured road users per 100,000 inhabitants in rural areas increased from 7.8 in 2003 to 9.3 in 2014 but doubled in urban areas from 8.0 in to 16.3 respectively. In areas not transformed by Vision Zero, only 36% were injured in rural areas while 64% were injured in urban areas. In contrast, in transformed areas 61% of injuries occurred in rural areas, whereas 39% occurred in urban areas. While the incidence decreased for car occupants on transformed national roads in rural areas, the incidence of serious injuries increased among unprotected road users in urban areas, in particular on pavements and tracks for cycling and walking than on the roads where Vision Zero had been implemented. Conclusion: The reduction in the incidence for car occupants in the region may not be adequate to contribute to fulfilling the national target. More needs to be done, especially in the urban areas, where more active mobility is desired. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central Ltd., 2019
Keywords
Incidence, ISS, Policy, Road injury, Rural, STRADA, Urban, Vision Zero
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46308 (URN)10.1186/s12889-019-7937-0 (DOI)000501793800017 ()31775706 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85075790945 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-12 Created: 2019-12-12 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Peter, L., Raninen, J., Aslund, C., Svensson, J. & Nilsson, K. W. (2019). The increased trend of non-drinking alcohol among adolescents: what role do internet activities have?. European Journal of Public Health, 29(1), 27-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The increased trend of non-drinking alcohol among adolescents: what role do internet activities have?
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, an increased trend toward non-drinking among adolescents has been observed in several countries. The aim of the present study is to evaluate a common suggestion in literature, that adolescents do not drink alcohol because they spend more time on the internet, monitored at home, by examining associations between internet activities (social media/chatting and computer gaming) and non-drinking. A health questionnaire was distributed to all 9th graders (1516 years) in a mid-sized Swedish county in 2008, 2010 and 2012. In total, 7089 students returned the questionnaire. In contrast to the suggestion, no association was found between total time spent on computers and non-drinking. Social media/chatting was robustly associated with a decreased probability of non-drinking across the three survey years. On the other hand, computer gaming during weekends only (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.132.69) or both on weekdays and weekends increased the probability of non-drinking (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.312.54) in 2012 only. However, neither social media/chatting nor computer gaming was associated with the increased trend of non-drinking from 2008 to 2012. Internet activities were in general not associated with non-drinking among adolescents aged 1516 years in Sweden. Although, a weak positive association between computer gaming and non-drinking was found in 2012, this effect benefited the vast majority of the boys. The larger alcohol use among those with extensive social media use/chatting may indicate that these online platforms are arenas where adolescents are exposed for positive alcohol preferences and alcohol advertising without parental supervision.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46234 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cky168 (DOI)000462576700007 ()30169631 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-03Bibliographically approved
Värnild, A., Peter, L. & Johansson, A. (2019). Vision Zero in relation to active mobility and serious injuries in an urban road space for all road users. In: : . Paper presented at The 9th Nordic Health Promotion Research Conference 2019, 2019-06-14, sub-theme 13 Physical activity, civil society and, interaction in public space.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vision Zero in relation to active mobility and serious injuries in an urban road space for all road users
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46370 (URN)
Conference
The 9th Nordic Health Promotion Research Conference 2019, 2019-06-14, sub-theme 13 Physical activity, civil society and, interaction in public space
Available from: 2019-12-13 Created: 2019-12-13 Last updated: 2019-12-13Bibliographically approved
Peter, L., Aslund, C., Raninen, J. & Nilsson, K. W. (2018). Adolescent non-drinkers: Who are they? Social relations, school performance, lifestyle factors and health behaviours. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37, S67-S75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescent non-drinkers: Who are they? Social relations, school performance, lifestyle factors and health behaviours
2018 (English)In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, p. S67-S75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction and AimsTraditionally, non-drinking adults or young adults have been associated with health deficits rather than health benefits. However, as the proportion of Swedish non-drinking adolescents has doubled since 2000, their health profiles are of interest. The aim of the present study is to examine whether social relations, school characteristics, lifestyle factors or health behaviours distinguish adolescent non-drinkers from adolescent drinkers, and if their health profiles have changed from 2004 to 2012. Design and MethodsData from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland, a health survey biennially distributed to all 9th graders (15-16years) in a medium-sized Swedish county, was used. In total, 2872 students in 2004 and 2045 students in 2012 were included. ResultsNon-drinkers were distinguished from drinkers in both 2004 and 2012 by elevated parental supervision, a lower rate of school truancy and lower rates of cannabis use, use of other illicit drugs, daily smoking and lower scores on antisocial behaviour, but more problems of getting new friends. No differences between 2004 and 2012 were found. Discussion and ConclusionsNon-drinkers presented more adaptive and healthier behaviours than their drinking peers, but it is difficult to determine whether their health benefits were related to their improved alcohol status or to the more general trend towards adaptation that occurred from 2004 to 2012 among adolescents.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46235 (URN)10.1111/dar.12640 (DOI)000431986800009 ()29218748 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-03Bibliographically approved
Lindner, P., Flodin, P., Peter, L., Budhiraja, M., Savic-Berglund, I., Jokinen, J., . . . Hodgins, S. (2018). Amygdala-orbitofrontal structural and functional connectivity in females with anxiety disorders, with and without a history of conduct disorder. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 1101.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amygdala-orbitofrontal structural and functional connectivity in females with anxiety disorders, with and without a history of conduct disorder
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 1101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans. The uncinate fasciculus was reconstructed using tractography and manual dissection, and structural measures extracted. Correlations of resting-state activity between amygdala and OFC seeds were computed. The CD + AD and AD groups showed similarly reduced structural integrity of the left uncinate compared to ND, even after adjusting for IQ, psychiatric comorbidity, and childhood maltreatment. Uncinate integrity was associated with harm avoidance traits among AD-only women, and with the interaction of poor anger control and anxiety symptoms among CD + AD women. Groups did not differ in functional connectivity. Reduced uncinate integrity observed in CD + AD and AD-only women may reflect deficient emotion regulation in response to threat, common to both disorders, while other neural mechanisms determine the behavioral response.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46236 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-19569-7 (DOI)000422739300064 ()29348532 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-03Bibliographically approved
Raninen, J., Livingston, M., Karlsson, P., Leifman, H., Guttormsson, U., Svensson, J. & Peter, L. (2018). One explanation to rule them all?: Identifying sub-groups of non-drinking Swedish ninth graders. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37, S42-S48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>One explanation to rule them all?: Identifying sub-groups of non-drinking Swedish ninth graders
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2018 (English)In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, p. S42-S48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction and Aims: Researchers in a number of countries have recently identified major changes in adolescent alcohol consumption since the early 2000s, with the prevalence of teenage drinking more than halving in some countries. The major aims of the current study are to examine if there are sub-groups among non-drinking Swedish ninth graders and to describe how the prevalence of these groups has changed during the period 1999 to 2015. Design and Methods: Data from five waves of the Swedish European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs study was used. The data covered 16 years and the total sample comprised 14 976 students. Latent class analysis was used to identify sub-groups of non-drinkers (n = 4267) based on parental approval towards drinking, parental monitoring, leisure time activities, school performance and use of other substances. Results: Five latent classes were found: computer gamers (8.3%), strict parents (36.5%), liberal parents (27.0%), controlling but liberal parents (16.6%) and sports (11.6%). In the non-drinking sub-group the strict parents group increased most between 1999 and 2015. Discussion and Conclusions: The results imply that there is notable within-group diversity in non-drinking youth. Several mechanisms and explanations are thus likely to be behind the decline in drinking participation among Swedish adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2018
Keywords
adolescents, alcohol, latent class, non-drinking, Sweden
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39233 (URN)10.1111/dar.12663 (DOI)000431986800006 ()29405460 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046534706 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-17 Created: 2018-05-17 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3452-7260

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