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Gaetana, S., Sentilles, S., Crnkovic, I. & Seceleanu, T. (2016). Extra-Functional Properties Composability for Embedded Systems Partitioning. In: Proceedings - 2016 19th International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering, CBSE 2016: . Paper presented at 19th International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering, CBSE 2016, 5 April 2016 through 8 April 2016 (pp. 69-78).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extra-Functional Properties Composability for Embedded Systems Partitioning
2016 (English)In: Proceedings - 2016 19th International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering, CBSE 2016, 2016, p. 69-78Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern embedded systems utilize the advances in heterogeneous platforms that enable implementing functions in software (SW) and hardware (HW) components. A proper configuration of SW and HW components can significantly improve the values of the extra-functional properties such as performance and energy savings. However, due to increasing application complexity, it is difficult to find the best combination of HW and SW components. The problem basically boils down to calculate, for a given architecture, the system properties from the components' ones. In this paper, we address the problem of composability of EFPs at system level. Although in general this is not a solvable problem, we present that, under strictly specified constraints, it is possible to compose the system EFPs starting from the component ones. We start by detailing constraints related to the system architecture, platform and process development and, based on these constraints, we provide composition rules for different types of EFPs. We demonstrate the results through an industrial example.

Keywords
Composability, Embedded Systems, Extra-Functional Properties, Partitioning, Computer architecture, Energy conservation, Problem solving, Software engineering, Application complexity, Heterogeneous platforms, Modern embedded systems, System architectures, Systems partitioning
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32912 (URN)10.1109/CBSE.2016.19 (DOI)000390946500009 ()2-s2.0-84981485900 (Scopus ID)9781509025695 (ISBN)
Conference
19th International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering, CBSE 2016, 5 April 2016 through 8 April 2016
Available from: 2016-08-25 Created: 2016-08-25 Last updated: 2017-01-26Bibliographically approved
Gaetana, S. (2016). Hardware/Software Partitioning Methodology for Embedded Applications using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis. (Doctoral dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hardware/Software Partitioning Methodology for Embedded Applications using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The new hardware technologies enable execution of embedded systems applications on heterogeneous execution platforms. These platforms consist of different execution processing units, for example of CPUs, and FPGAs, that enable the application execution of software (SW) components, typically implemented as C/C++ code, and hardware (HW) components, implemented as VHDL code. This heterogeneity enables building dedicated components which can significantly improve the application performance. This, however, requires decisions on which components will be implemented as SW and which as HW execution units. This decision process in known as HW/SW partitioning, and is a subject of research of more than 20 years. Typical goals of this research was to find the optimal partitioning with respect to the system performance, and possibly a couple of other properties such as power consumption, or resource utilization (e.g. related to CPU memory footprint and FPGA area). However, by significant increase in complexity of the applications, and inclusion of different requirements, the partitioning decisions become more complex, as well as the entire development process with an integrated partitioning decision process. Today there is a lack of a systematic approach for partitioning complex applications. This thesis addresses this challenge. The main objective of the thesis is to design and build a systematic partitioning decision process that includes many requirements of different types. The thesis describes a new method MULTIPAR that includes the partitioning decision process for component-based embedded systems. The method is based on model-based engineering principles; components are analysed as models which can be implemented either as a SW or HW components, and the implementation itself is performed at a late stage of the development process. The partition is based on the optimisation of the application’s and components’ extra-functional properties (EFPs) that are derived from the requirements and project constraints. For the optimization a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method is used. As a part of the main contribution, the thesis includes several independent contributions that are of a more general character: a) modeling principles for component-based applications which consists of SW and HW components, and a component can be implemented as SW or/and HW code; b) a classification and analysis of EFPs in respect to the dependency on their HW or SW implementation; c) composition rules for some of EFPs for SW and HW components; d) suitability and limitations of MCDA methods in their usage for the partitioning decisions. MULTIPAR is also implemented in a form of a tool that enables a selection of components and analysis of the system in respect to the selected EFPs. The feasibility of MULTIPAR was validated through two industrial cases. The thesis is organized in two parts; the first part includes an introduction summarizing the overall work and discussing the research approach, and the second part collect the most relevant papers published in different venues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2016
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 210
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33210 (URN)978-91-7485-284-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-04, Lambda, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-23 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Sapienza, G., Dodig-Crnkovic, G. & Crnkovic, I. (2016). Inclusion of Ethical Aspects in Multi-criteria Decision Analysis. In: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016: . Paper presented at 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 5 April 2016 (pp. 1-8).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inclusion of Ethical Aspects in Multi-criteria Decision Analysis
2016 (English)In: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 2016, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Decision process is often based on multi-faceted and mutually opposing criteria. In order to provide rigorous techniques for problem structuring and criteria aggregation used for classification and ranking of alternatives, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) has been used as a method to achieve architectural decisions. Even though it has already been argued in literature that MCDA essentially depends on value systems of decision-makers, it is a question how the decision result reflects a particular criterion, requirement or a particular decision. This is especially true if a criterion is not precisely specified. In this paper we analyse the ethical aspects of MCDA. In our analysis we argue that it is in the long run necessary to make value basis of decision-making and ethical considerations explicit and subject for scrutiny. As a support to encourage introduction of transparent value-based deliberation we propose an extended MCDA scheme that would explicitly take into account ethical analysis. As an illustration, we present an industrial case study for the Software (SW)/Hardware (HW) partitioning of a wind turbine application in which different decisions can be taken, depending on the ethical aspects. 

Keywords
Embedded Systems, Ethical Aspects, Ethics, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Application programs, Decision theory, Operations research, Philosophical aspects, Software architecture, Wind turbines, Architectural decision, Ethical considerations, Industrial case study, Multi-criteria decision analysis, Ranking of alternatives, Decision making
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32524 (URN)10.1109/MARCH.2016.8 (DOI)000382526100001 ()2-s2.0-84979519277 (Scopus ID)9781509025732 (ISBN)
Conference
1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 5 April 2016
Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-18 Last updated: 2016-09-29Bibliographically approved
Lednicki, L., Sapienza, G., Johansson, M. E., Seceleanu, T. & Hallmans, D. (2016). Integrating Version Control in a Standardized Service-Oriented Tool Chain. In: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference: . Paper presented at 2016 IEEE 40th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, COMPSAC 2016, 10 June 2016 through 14 June 2016 (pp. 323-328).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating Version Control in a Standardized Service-Oriented Tool Chain
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2016, p. 323-328Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The complexity of modern embedded systems most often requires multiple specialized tools to be used during the development process. These tools are commonly integrated into tool chains. An efficient way of achieving such integration is through the use of an tool integration framework, with one of the most prominent of such frameworks being Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC). However, at present time OSLC does not provide an established way for fully integrating version control systems. This paper presents how version control systems can be integrated into a tool chain based on OSLC. The integration is enabled by defining a version control domain based on the OSLC core specification, describing how to represent versioned artifacts and perform version control operations. The proposed approach is implemented and its feasibility is proven on a case study tool chain, which integrates the Team Foundation Server version control system and an industrial design tool for the power distribution domain.

Keywords
open services for lifecycle integration, oslc, tool integration, version control, Application programs, Chains, Computer software, Control systems, Embedded systems, Life cycle, Product design, Development process, Modern embedded systems, Open services, Power distributions, Version control system, Information management
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33268 (URN)10.1109/COMPSAC.2016.141 (DOI)000389533300040 ()2-s2.0-84988008293 (Scopus ID)9781467388450 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IEEE 40th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, COMPSAC 2016, 10 June 2016 through 14 June 2016
Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
Sapienza, G., Crnkovic, I. & Potena, P. (2014). Architectural Decisions for HW/SW Partitioning Based on Multiple Extra-Functional Properties. In: : . Paper presented at 11th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA 2014), Sydney, Australia, April 7-11, 2014 (pp. 175-184).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architectural Decisions for HW/SW Partitioning Based on Multiple Extra-Functional Properties
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Growing advances in hardware technologies are enabling significant improvements in application performance by the deployment of components to dedicated executable units. This is particularly valid for Cyber Physical Systems in which the applications are partitioned in HW and SW execution units. The growing complexity of such systems, and increasing requirements, both project- and product-related, makes the partitioning decision process complex. Although different approaches to this decision process have been proposed during recent decades, they lack the ability to provide relevant decisions based on a larger number of requirements and project/business constraints. A sound approach to this problem is taking into account all relevant requirements and constraints and their relations to the properties of the components deployed either as HW or SW units. A typical approach for managing a large number of criteria is a multicriteria decision analysis. This, in its turn, requires uniform definitions of component properties and their realization in respect to their HW/SW deployment. The aim of this paper is twofold: a) to provide an architectural metamodel of component-based applications with specifications of their properties with respect to their partitioning, and b) to categorize component properties in relation to HW/SW deployment. The metamodel enables the transition of system requirements to system and component properties. The categorization provides support for architectural decisions. It is demonstrated through a property guideline for the partitioning of the System Automation and Control domain. The guideline is based on interviews with practitioners and researchers, the experts in this domain.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24957 (URN)10.1109/WICSA.2014.19 (DOI)2-s2.0-84903702504 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-3412-6 (ISBN)
Conference
11th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA 2014), Sydney, Australia, April 7-11, 2014
Projects
ITS-EASY
Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2016-09-22Bibliographically approved
Sapienza, G. (2014). Multiple Property-based Partitioning for Embedded Applications. (Licentiate dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalens Högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple Property-based Partitioning for Embedded Applications
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The new development of different types of computation units, such as FPGAs and multicore CPUs, enables a tremendous improvement in performance of applications that utilize the dedicated types of computations. For complex applications this however introduces a new challenge - what is the optimal deployment configuration of their components?

Today the application deployment is based on ad-hoc architectural decisions taken in an early design phase, when many design details are unknown, and as a consequence they often change in a later phase, increasing so the development costs. In addition, the decisions are taken based on a limited number of requirements, mostly related to runtime properties such as performance, resource utilization and power consumption, but do not consider many other aspects related to lifecycle properties, or to the project constraints. This approach increases the risk that a decision has a negative impact on a runtime or a lifecycle system property and may lead to the mentioned changes. This thesis addresses the problem of optimal hardware/software deployment of an application. The main objective is to define a process in which the deployment decisions are taken in a systematic way in a later phase of the design process, and the partition decision process takes into account all artifacts on which the decisions have direct impact. These artifacts include the application’s runtime properties, the properties related to the application lifecycle, the business goals, and the development project constraints. To achieve this objective we have a) defined a development process model that addresses the deployment explicitly in the late design phase, b) designed a metamodel of component-based applications deployed as hardware or software executable units, and c) analyzed the suitability of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis methods for providing partitioning decisions based on a large number of criteria. In addition we have analysed which properties are affected by the partitioning decisions in the Control and Automation domains. The feasibility of the proposed process is demonstrated throughout an industrial case study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens Högskola, 2014
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 176
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24962 (URN)978-91-7485-150-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-06-10, Gamma, Högskoleplan 1, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-05-08 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
Suryadevara, J., Sapienza, G., Seceleanu, C., Seceleanu, T., Elleveseth, S.-E. & Pettersson, P. (2014). Wind Turbine System: An Industrial Case Study in Formal Modeling and Verification. In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, Volume 419 CCIS: . Paper presented at 2nd International Workshop of Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems, FTSCS 2013; Queenstown; New Zealand; 29 October 2013 through 30 October 2013 (pp. 229-245).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wind Turbine System: An Industrial Case Study in Formal Modeling and Verification
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2014 (English)In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, Volume 419 CCIS, 2014, p. 229-245Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the development of embedded systems, the formal analysis of system artifacts, such as structural and behavioral models, helps the system engineers to understand the overall functional and timing behavior of the system. In this case study paper, we present our experience in applying formal verification and validation (V&V) techniques, we had earlier proposed, for an industrial wind turbine system (WTS). We demonstrate the complementary benefits of formal verification in the context of existing V&V practices largely based on simulation and testing. We also discuss some modeling trade-offs and challenges we have identified with the case-study, which are worth being emphasized. One issue is related, for instance, to the expressiveness of the system artifacts, in view of the known limitations of rigorous verification, e.g. model-checking, of industrial systems.

Keywords
Formal Modeling, Case Study
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-22326 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-05416-2_15 (DOI)2-s2.0-84904627849 (Scopus ID)9783319054155 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Workshop of Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems, FTSCS 2013; Queenstown; New Zealand; 29 October 2013 through 30 October 2013
Projects
ARROWS
Available from: 2013-11-01 Created: 2013-11-01 Last updated: 2015-02-05Bibliographically approved
Seceleanu, T. & Sapienza, G. (2013). A Tool Integration Framework for Sustainable Embedded Systems Development. Computer, 46(11), 68-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Tool Integration Framework for Sustainable Embedded Systems Development
2013 (English)In: Computer, ISSN 0018-9162, E-ISSN 1558-0814, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 68-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tool integration in the context of embedded systems development and maintenance is challenging due to such systems' lengthy life cycles and adaptability to process specifications. The iFEST frameworkprovides flexibility in development processes and extends support for long product life cycles.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24960 (URN)10.1109/MC.2013.297 (DOI)000327605900021 ()2-s2.0-84890054538 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ITS-EASY
Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Sapienza, G., Crnkovic, I. & Seceleanu, T. (2013). Modelling for Hardware and Software Partitioning based on Multiple Properties. In: Proceedings - 39th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2013: . Paper presented at 39th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2013; Santander; Spain; 4 September 2013 through 6 September 2013 (pp. 189-194).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling for Hardware and Software Partitioning based on Multiple Properties
2013 (English)In: Proceedings - 39th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2013, 2013, p. 189-194Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In many embedded systems types the separation process for deploying the applications as software and hardware executable units, called partitioning is crucial. This is due to the fact that partitioning decisions impact the overall life cycle of the systems. In industry it is common practice to take partitioning decisions in an early stage of the design, based on hardware and software designers expertise. We propose a new methodology as a combination of modelbased and component-based approaches which enables a late partitioning decisions based on high level system requirements and project constrains. The final partitioning is decided based on a multi-property analysis approach. Here, we focus on the formalization of the overall process and in particular on the definition of a comprehensive system metamodel. This is meant to support modelling approaches suitable for enabling both the partitioning and reuse. An industrial case study is used to illustrate the approach.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-22262 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2013.56 (DOI)2-s2.0-84889055176 (Scopus ID)978-0-7695-5091-6 (Local ID)978-0-7695-5091-6 (Archive number)978-0-7695-5091-6 (OAI)
Conference
39th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2013; Santander; Spain; 4 September 2013 through 6 September 2013
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2013-11-03 Created: 2013-10-31 Last updated: 2016-09-22Bibliographically approved
Sapienza, G., Seceleanu, T. & Crnkovic, I. (2013). Partitioning decision process for embedded hardware and software deployment. In: Proc Int Comput Software Appl Conf: . Paper presented at 2013 IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops, COMPSACW 2013; Kyoto; Japan; 22 July 2013 through 26 July 2013 (pp. 674-680).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partitioning decision process for embedded hardware and software deployment
2013 (English)In: Proc Int Comput Software Appl Conf, 2013, p. 674-680Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many types of embedded systems applications are implemented as a combination of software and hardware. For such systems the mapping of the application units into hardware and software, i.e. The partitioning process, is a key phase of the design. Although there exist techniques for partitioning, the entire process, in particular in relation to different application requirements and project constraints, is not properly supported. This leads to several unplanned iterations, redesigns and interruptions due to uncontrolled dependencies between hardware and software parts. In order to overcome these problems, we provide a design process that enables the partitioning based on a multiple criteria decision analysis in a late design phase. We illustrate the proposed approach and provide a proof-of concept on an industrial case study to validate the approach applicability.

Series
Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, ISSN 0730-3157
Keywords
Component-based System, Development Process, Model-based Design, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Partitioning Decision Process
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-22330 (URN)10.1109/COMPSACW.2013.131 (DOI)000331223100115 ()2-s2.0-84885588310 (Scopus ID)9780769549873 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops, COMPSACW 2013; Kyoto; Japan; 22 July 2013 through 26 July 2013
Available from: 2013-11-01 Created: 2013-11-01 Last updated: 2018-01-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6954-8339

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