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Shahbazi, S., Kurdve, M., Zackrisson, M., Jönsson, C. & Anna-runa, K. (2019). Comparison of Four Environmental Assessment Tools in Swedish Manufacturing: a case study. Sustainability, 11(7), Article ID 2173.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Four Environmental Assessment Tools in Swedish Manufacturing: a case study
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 2173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To achieve sustainable development goals, it is essential to include the industrial system. There are sufficient numbers of tools and methods for measuring, assessing and improving the quality, productivity and efficiency of production, but the number of tools and methods for environmental initiatives on the shop floor is rather low. Incorporating environmental considerations into production and performance management systems still generally involves a top-down approach aggregated for an entire manufacturing plant. Green lean studies have been attempting to fill this gap to some extent, but the lack of detailed methodologies and practical tools for environmental manufacturing improvement on the shop floor is still evident. This paper reports on the application of four environmental assessment tools commonly used among Swedish manufacturing companies—Green Performance Map (GPM), Environmental Value Stream Mapping (EVSM), Waste Flow Mapping (WFM), and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)—to help practitioners and scholars to understand the different features of each tool, so in turn the right tool(s) can be selected according to particular questions and the industrial settings. Because there are some overlap and differences between the tools and a given tool may be more appropriate to a situation depending on the question posed, a combination of tools is suggested to embrace different types of data collection and analysis to include different environmental impacts for better prioritization and decision-making.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38519 (URN)10.3390/su11072173 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
Shahbazi, S., Jönsson, C., Wiktorsson, M., Kurdve, M. & Bjelkemyr, M. (2018). Material efficiency measurement: Swedish case studies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 181, 17-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material efficiency measurement: Swedish case studies
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 181, p. 17-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A major factor in the continued deterioration of the global environment is unsustainable management of resources that includes the type and quantity of resources consumed and manufactured as well as the subsequent generation and treatment of wasted materials. Improved material efficiency (ME) in manufacturing is key to reducing resource consumption levels and improving waste management initiatives. However, ME must be measured, and related goals must be broken down into performance indicators for manufacturing companies. This paper aims to improve ME in manufacturing using a structured model for ME performance measurements. We present a set of ME key performance indicators (ME-KPIs) at the individual company and lower operational levels based on empirical studies and a structured literature review. Our empirical findings are based on data collected on the performance indicators and material and waste flows of nine manufacturing companies located in Sweden. The proposed model categorizes ME-KPIs into the following categories: productive input materials, auxiliary input materials, output products, and residual output materials. These categories must be measured equally to facilitate the measurement, assessment, improvement and reporting of material consumption and waste generation in a manufacturing context. Required qualities for ME-KPI suggested in literature are also discussed, and missing indicators are identified. Most of the identified ME-KPIs measure quality- and cost-related factors, while end-of-life scenarios, waste segregation and the environmental effects of waste generation and material consumption are not equally measured. Additionally, ME-KPIs must also be connected to pre-determined goals and that defining or revising ME-KPIs requires communication with various external and internal actors to increase employees’ awareness and engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38518 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.215 (DOI)000428483100003 ()2-s2.0-85042354105 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
Shahbazi, S. (2018). Sustainable Manufacturing through Material Efficiency Management. (Doctoral dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable Manufacturing through Material Efficiency Management
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Material efficiency contributes to reduced industrial waste volumes, reduced extraction and consumption of virgin raw materials, increased waste segregation, decreased energy demand, and reduced carbon emissions, thereby generally mitigating the environmental impact of the manufacturing industry. However, the area of material efficiency in manufacturing is under-researched, and related knowledge is limited particularly at individual manufacturing sites and lower levels. These levels are crucial to achieve improved material efficiency, as a great amount of material is consumed and waste flows are generated on manufacturing shop floors. There are still gaps in both literature and industrial practice regarding material efficiency in manufacturing, where materials are consumed to make products and great volumes of waste are generated simultaneously.

The research objective of this dissertation is to contribute to existing knowledge on management and improvement of material efficiency in manufacturing. To achieve this objective, three research questions were formulated to investigate material efficiency barriers, material efficiency tools and strategies, and material efficiency performance measurement. The results are supported by four structured and extensive literature reviews and also by five empirical case studies conducted at a total of fourteen Swedish global manufacturing companies. These empirical studies entail observations, interviews, waste stream mapping, waste sorting analyses, environmental report reviews, and company walkthroughs.

A number of material efficiency barriers in manufacturing were identified, categorized and clustered to facilitate an understanding of material efficiency to effectively mitigate the barriers. The clustered barriers cited most often in the literature are budgetary, information, technology, management, vision and culture, uncertainty, engineering, and employees. In the empirical studies, vision and culture, technology, and uncertainty were replaced by communication. Most of the material efficiency barriers identified appear to be internal and are dependent on the manufacturing company’s characteristics.

A number of tools and strategies were identified and some were used to assess, manage, and improve material efficiency in the manufacturing companies studied. Empirical studies indicated that certain criteria are necessary to select and use operational tools. These criteria include being hands-on, time efficient, based on lean principles, easy to use and learn, visualized, promoting engagement, and being connected to a predetermined goal. These criteria are essential for mutual understanding, intra-organizational communication, performance improvement, and becoming a learning organization.

A model for a material efficiency performance measurement system was proposed that included the most common material efficiency-related key performance indicators from literature and empirical findings. The model divides material and waste flows into four main categories: productive input materials, auxiliary input materials, products, and residual output materials. The four main categories should be measured equally to realize material efficiency performance improvements in an operation.

This research contributes to the research area of material efficiency and sheds light on different inter-connected aspects, which affect one another and contribute to assess, manage and improve material efficiency in a manufacturing context. The studied conducted and the results are presented in five appended papers. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2018
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 253
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38520 (URN)978-91-7485-373-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-16, Raspen, Mälardalens högskola, Eskilstuna, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
Shahbazi, S., Wiktorsson, M. & Kurdve, M. (2018). Using the green performance map: Towards material efficiency measurement. In: Operations Management and Sustainability: New Research Perspectives: (pp. 247-269). Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the green performance map: Towards material efficiency measurement
2018 (English)In: Operations Management and Sustainability: New Research Perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan , 2018, p. 247-269Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Previous environmental studies indicate several barriers to circular economy and material efficiency including a lack of detailed methodologies for manufacturing improvement in terms of environmental and operational performances to measure, monitor and evaluate material consumption and waste generation. A lean and green tool, the green performance map (GPM), is an appropriate tool for different environmental initiatives including training, improvement, reporting and development. Through literature review and multiple case study methodology, this chapter presents the current application of GPM in industry and its usage to regularly measure and monitor material efficiency measurements on different levels and to remove barriers to improved material efficiency. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2018
Keywords
Green performance map, Lean and green, Material efficiency
National Category
Environmental Management Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43072 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-93212-5_13 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063476072 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Rastegari, A., Sasha, S. & Bengtsson, M. (2017). Condition-based maintenance effectiveness from material efficiency perspective. International Journal of COMADEM, 20(1), 23-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condition-based maintenance effectiveness from material efficiency perspective
2017 (English)In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 23-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the controversial gap between the environmental perspective and the cost perspective in a manufacturing context. The results of an empirical study on the heat treatment and phosphating processes performed by a manufacturing company indicate that implementing condition-based maintenance contributes not only to cost savings by preventing production losses and reducing equipment downtime but also to a more efficient use of resources by avoiding the generation of scraps and material wastage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United Kingdom: , 2017
Keywords
Condition-based maintenance, Material efficiency, Manufacturing
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35505 (URN)2-s2.0-85048720718 (Scopus ID)1363-7681 (ISBN)
Projects
INNOFACTURE - innovative manufacturing development
Available from: 2017-05-31 Created: 2017-05-31 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Shahbazi, S., Salloum, M., Kurdve, M. & Wiktorsson, M. (2017). Material Efficiency Measurement: Empirical Investigation of Manufacturing Industry. Procedia Manufacturing, 8, 112-120
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material Efficiency Measurement: Empirical Investigation of Manufacturing Industry
2017 (English)In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 8, p. 112-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Improving material efficiency contributes to reduce the volume of industrial waste as well as resource consumption. However, less has been published addressing on what to measure for material efficiency in a manufacturing company. This paper presents the current practice of material efficiency performance indicators in a manufacturing context through a bottom-up approach. In addition to literature review, the empirical data was collected via a multiple case study at seven global manufacturing companies located in Sweden. The results show that existing material efficiency indicators are limited and are mainly measured as a cost or quality parameter rather than environment. The limited number of measurements relates to the fact that material efficiency is not considered as a central business in manufacturing companies and is managed by environmental department with limited correlation to operation. Additionally, these measurements do not aim to reduce waste volume or improve homogeneity of generated waste.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2017
Keywords
manufacturing, Material efficiency, performance indicator
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35132 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2017.02.014 (DOI)000400857500014 ()2-s2.0-85015670734 (Scopus ID)
Projects
CiMMRecXPRES
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental ResearchXPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2018-07-25Bibliographically approved
Zackrisson, M., Kurdve, M., Shahbazi, S., Wiktorsson, M., Winroth, M., Landström, A., . . . Myrelid, A. (2017). Sustainability Performance Indicators at Shop Floor Level in Large Manufacturing Companies. In: Procedia CIRP: . Paper presented at 24th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, CIRP LCE 2017, 8 March 2017 through 10 March 2017 (pp. 457-462). Elsevier B.V.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability Performance Indicators at Shop Floor Level in Large Manufacturing Companies
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2017 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2017, p. 457-462Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article investigates sustainability in the performance measurement systems of Swedish manufacturing companies. It builds on a previous study that documents relatively few direct environmental indicators at shop floor level, which raises questions about possible indirect links between existing indicators and the environment that could be used to improve the environmental aspect of company's sustainability ambitions. A method for identifying and categorizing indirect links to sustainability issues was defined and used. The results suggest that at shop floor level 90% of the indicators have at least an indirect relation to one or more of the sustainability dimensions economy, environment and social, of which 26% are at least indirectly related to the environmental dimension. Despite the many indirect connections, participating companies perceive a need to improve sustainability indicators and some ideas are suggested. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2017
Keywords
Environmental management, Performance Measurement System, Sustainability, Sustainability Performance Indicator, Benchmarking, Floors, Life cycle, Manufacture, Supply chain management, Waste disposal, Environmental aspects, Environmental indicators, Manufacturing companies, Sustainability dimensions, Sustainability indicators, Sustainability issues, Sustainability performance, Sustainable development
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35798 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.11.199 (DOI)000404511900079 ()2-s2.0-85020043898 (Scopus ID)
Conference
24th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, CIRP LCE 2017, 8 March 2017 through 10 March 2017
Projects
Sure BPMSXPRES
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Available from: 2017-06-15 Created: 2017-06-15 Last updated: 2018-01-30
Almström, P., Andersson, C., Ericsson Öberg, A., Hammersberg, P., Kurdve, M., Landström, A., . . . Zackrisson, M. (2017). Sustainable and Resource Efficient Business Performance Measurement Systems - The Handbook.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable and Resource Efficient Business Performance Measurement Systems - The Handbook
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 44
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37344 (URN)978-91-639-5272-2 (ISBN)
Projects
XPRES - Excellence in Production ResearchSuRe BPMS - Sustainable and Resource Efficient Business Performance Measurement Systems
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2018-04-27Bibliographically approved
Kurdve, M., Shahbazi, S., Wendin, M., Bengtsson, C., Wiktorsson, M. & Amprazis, P. (2017). Waste flow mapping: Handbook. Eskilstuna: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waste flow mapping: Handbook
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Mälardalen University, 2017
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39049 (URN)978-91-7485-339-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
Shahbazi, S. & Wiktorsson, M. (2016). Using the Green Performance Map: towards the next step in material efficiency measurement. In: 23rd EurOMA conference EUROMA 2016: . Paper presented at 23rd EurOMA conference EUROMA 2016, 17-22 Jun 2016, Trondheim, Norway.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the Green Performance Map: towards the next step in material efficiency measurement
2016 (English)In: 23rd EurOMA conference EUROMA 2016, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32862 (URN)
Conference
23rd EurOMA conference EUROMA 2016, 17-22 Jun 2016, Trondheim, Norway
Projects
XPRESINNOFACTURE - innovative manufacturing developmentSustainable and Resource Efficienct Business Performance Measurement Systems
Available from: 2016-09-23 Created: 2016-08-24 Last updated: 2016-09-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3390-938X

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