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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Sljivo, I., Gallina, B., Carlson, J., Hansson, H. & Puri, S. (2018). Tool-supported safety-relevant component reuse: From specification to argumentation. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Volume 10873: . Paper presented at 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Ada-Europe 2018; Lisbon; Portugal; 18 June 2018 through 22 June 2018 (pp. 19-33). Springer Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tool-supported safety-relevant component reuse: From specification to argumentation
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2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Volume 10873, Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 19-33Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Contracts are envisaged to support compositional verification of a system as well as reuse and independent development of their implementations. But reuse of safety-relevant components in safety-critical systems needs to cover more than just the implementations. As many safety-relevant artefacts related to the component as possible should be reused together with the implementation to assist the integrator in assuring that the system they are developing is acceptably safe. Furthermore, the reused assurance information related to the contracts should be structured clearly to communicate the confidence in the component. In this work we present a tool-supported methodology for contract-driven assurance and reuse. We define the variability on the contract level in the scope of a trace-based approach to contract-based design. With awareness of the hierarchical nature of systems subject to compositional verification, we propose assurance patterns for arguing confidence in satisfaction of requirements and contracts. We present an implementation extending the AMASS platform to support automated instantiation of the proposed patterns, and evaluate its adequacy for assurance and reuse in a real-world case study. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 10873
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40197 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-92432-8_2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049018625 (Scopus ID)9783319924311 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Ada-Europe 2018; Lisbon; Portugal; 18 June 2018 through 22 June 2018
Available from: 2018-07-05 Created: 2018-07-05 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Šljivo, I., Lisova, E. & Afshar, S. (2017). Agent-centred Approach for Assuring Ethics in Dependable Service Systems. In: 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017: . Paper presented at 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 25 Jun 2017, Honolulu, United States (pp. 51-58). , Article ID 8036721.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agent-centred Approach for Assuring Ethics in Dependable Service Systems
2017 (English)In: 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 2017, p. 51-58, article id 8036721Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As the world enters the information era, more and more dependable services controlling and even making our decisions are moved to the ubiquitous smart devices. While various standards are in place to impose the societal ethical norms on decision-making of those devices, the rights of the individuals to satisfy their own moral norms are not addressed with the same scrutiny. Hence, the right of the individuals to reason on their own and evaluate morality of certain decisions is at stake, as many decisions are outsourced from the user to the service providers and third party stakeholders without the user's full awareness of all the aspects of those decisions. In this work we propose an agent-centred approach for assuring ethics in dependable technological service systems. We build upon assurance of safety and security and propose the notion of ethics assurance case as a way to assure that individual users have been made aware of all the ethically challenging decisions that might be performed or enabled by the service provider. We propose a framework for identifying and categorising ethically challenging decisions, and documenting the ethics assurance case. We apply the framework on an illustrative example.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35502 (URN)10.1109/SERVICES.2017.18 (DOI)000425960800009 ()2-s2.0-85032373741 (Scopus ID)
Conference
13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 25 Jun 2017, Honolulu, United States
Projects
PRESS - Predictable Embedded Software SystemsRetNet - The European Industrial Doctorate Programme on Future Real-Time NetworksFuture factories in the Cloud
Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Sljivo, I., Gallina, B. & Kaiser, B. (2017). Assuring degradation cascades of car platoons via contracts. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10489: . Paper presented at International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, SAFECOMP 2017 and 5th International Workshop on Assurance Cases for Software-Intensive Systems, ASSURE 2017, 12th Workshop on Dependable Embedded and Cyber-physical Systems and Systems-of Systems, DECSoS 2017, 6th International Workshop on Next Generation of System Assurance Approaches for Safety Critical Systems, SASSUR 2017, 3rd International Workshop on Technical and Legal Aspects of Data Privacy and Security, TELERISE 2017 and 2nd International Workshop on the Timing Performance in Safety Engineering, TIPS 2017; Trento; Italy; 12 September 2017 through 12 September 2017 (pp. 317-329). Springer Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assuring degradation cascades of car platoons via contracts
2017 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10489, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 317-329Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automated cooperation is arriving in practice, for instance in vehicular automation like platoon driving. The development and safety assurance of those systems poses new challenges, as the participating nodes are not known at design time; they engage in communication at runtime and the system behaviour can be distorted at any time by failures in some participant or in the communication itself. When running on a highway, simply switching off the function is not an option, as this would also result in hazardous situations. Graceful degradation offer a systematic approach to define a partial-order of less and less acceptable operation modes, of which the best achievable is selected in presence of failures. In this work we propose an approach for assurance of the degradation cascades based on mode-specific assertions, captured by assumption/guarantee contracts. More specifically, we share our experiences and methodology for specifying the contracts for both the nominal safe behaviour as well as the less safe but acceptable behaviour in presence of failures. Furthermore, we present an argument pattern for adequacy of the degradation cascades for meeting the global safety goals based on the contracts. We illustrate our approach by a car platooning case study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2017
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 10489 LNCS
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36680 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-66284-8_27 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029492653 (Scopus ID)9783319662831 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, SAFECOMP 2017 and 5th International Workshop on Assurance Cases for Software-Intensive Systems, ASSURE 2017, 12th Workshop on Dependable Embedded and Cyber-physical Systems and Systems-of Systems, DECSoS 2017, 6th International Workshop on Next Generation of System Assurance Approaches for Safety Critical Systems, SASSUR 2017, 3rd International Workshop on Technical and Legal Aspects of Data Privacy and Security, TELERISE 2017 and 2nd International Workshop on the Timing Performance in Safety Engineering, TIPS 2017; Trento; Italy; 12 September 2017 through 12 September 2017
Available from: 2017-10-06 Created: 2017-10-06 Last updated: 2017-10-06Bibliographically approved
Jaradat, O., Sljivo, I., Habli, I. & Hawkins, R. (2017). Challenges of Safety Assurance for Industry 4.0. In: European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC'17: . Paper presented at European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC'17, 04 Sep 2017, Geneva, Switzerland (pp. 103-106). Geneva, Switzerland: IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges of Safety Assurance for Industry 4.0
2017 (English)In: European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC'17, Geneva, Switzerland: IEEE Computer Society , 2017, p. 103-106Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet-of-Things (IoT) has enabled Industry 4.0 as a new manufacturing paradigm. The envisioned future of Industry 4.0 and Smart Factories is to be highly configurable and composed mainly of the 'things' that are expected to come with some, often partial, assurance guarantees. However, many factories are categorised as safety-critical, e.g. due to the use of heavy machinery or hazardous substances. As such, some of the guarantees provided by the 'things', e.g. related to performance and availability, are deemed as necessary in order to ensure the safety of the manufacturing processes and the resulting products. In this paper, we explore key safety challenges posed by Industry 4.0 and identify the characteristics that its safety assurance should exhibit. We propose a set of safety assurance responsibilities, e.g. system integrators, cloud service providers and `things' suppliers. Finally, we reflect on the desirable modularity of such a safety assurance approach as a basis for cooperative, on-demand and continuous reasoning for Industry 4.0 architectures and services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Geneva, Switzerland: IEEE Computer Society, 2017
Keywords
IoT, Cloud computing, Safety cases, Safety, Industry 4.0
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37027 (URN)10.1109/EDCC.2017.21 (DOI)000419858700018 ()2-s2.0-85041224275 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-0602-5 (ISBN)
Conference
European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC'17, 04 Sep 2017, Geneva, Switzerland
Projects
Future factories in the Cloud
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2018-02-15Bibliographically approved
Girs, S., Sljivo, I. & Jaradat, O. (2017). Contract-Based Assurance for Wireless Cooperative Functions of Vehicular Systems. In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY: . Paper presented at 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society IECON 2017, 30 Oct 2017, Beijing, China (pp. 8391-8396).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contract-Based Assurance for Wireless Cooperative Functions of Vehicular Systems
2017 (English)In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 8391-8396Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cooperation of vehicular systems is the stepping stone towards both road and indoor smart transportation systems. It aims at increasing transportation efficiency and safety compared to the stand-alone vehicular systems. The usage of wireless communication as the foundation of such safety-critical cooperation needs to be embraced with all its benefits and flaws compared to the wired communication. The cooperative functions need to be designed to adapt to the varying reliability of the wireless communication channels such that both the stand-alone vehicles as well as the smart transportation system formed by their cooperation are deemed sufficiently safe. In this paper we build upon a contract-based runtime monitoring architecture and propose a methodology for assuring adaptive behaviour of transportation with respect to the wireless communication channel failures. More specifically, we elaborate how safety analysis of the interaction of the wirelessly connected vehicles can be used as the basis for derivation of the adaptive modes and the corresponding contracts. Furthermore, we discuss how such contracts can be used as the basis for assurance of the adaptive wireless cooperation. We illustrate the proposed methodology on a smart transportation system of a factory.

Series
IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37330 (URN)000427164808041 ()2-s2.0-85046657321 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1127-2 (ISBN)
Conference
43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society IECON 2017, 30 Oct 2017, Beijing, China
Projects
Future factories in the CloudSafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication
Available from: 2017-11-30 Created: 2017-11-30 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
Medawar, S., Scholle, D. & Šljivo, I. (2017). Cooperative safety critical CPS platooning in SafeCOP. In: 2017 6th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing, MECO 2017 - Including ECYPS 2017, Proceedings: . Paper presented at 6th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing, MECO 2017, 11 June 2017 through 15 June 2017 (pp. 29-33). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 7977210.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative safety critical CPS platooning in SafeCOP
2017 (English)In: 2017 6th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing, MECO 2017 - Including ECYPS 2017, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 29-33, article id 7977210Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the platooning research within the Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication (SafeCOP) project. Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) using wireless communication and having multiple stakeholders, dynamic system definitions (openness), and unpredictable operating environments, are the main application of SafeCOP. In addition to safety assurance methods and tools, SafeCOP devises a runtime manager architecture that detects irregular operation, hence, prompting a safe degraded mode in case of need. SafeCOP lays a safety and security umbrella over the usage of current wireless technologies, contributes to new standards and regulations by providing scientifically validated solutions to establish standards which also addresses cooperation and system-of-systems issues. SafeCOP addresses several use cases that solve customer related problems. However, in this paper we will present a use case that extract generic principles from the combination of the previous use cases to stimulate the European collaboration around the project objectives, and to collect general requirements for the SafeCOP solution, applicable across all the areas considered. We consider a CO-CPS composed of two or more systems moving in a platoon while cooperating in a safe function. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36270 (URN)10.1109/MECO.2017.7977210 (DOI)000428759500012 ()2-s2.0-85027013159 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-6742-8 (ISBN)
Conference
6th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing, MECO 2017, 11 June 2017 through 15 June 2017
Available from: 2017-08-24 Created: 2017-08-24 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
Pop, P., Scholle, D., Šljivo, I., Hansson, H., Widforss, G. & Rosqvist, M. (2017). Safe cooperating cyber-physical systems using wireless communication: The SafeCOP approach. Microprocessors and microsystems, 53, 42-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safe cooperating cyber-physical systems using wireless communication: The SafeCOP approach
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2017 (English)In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 53, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled “Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication” (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016–2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless communication, multiple stakeholders, dynamic system definitions (openness), and unpredictable operating environments. SafeCOP will provide an approach to the safety assurance of CO-CPS, enabling thus their certification and development. The project will define a runtime manager architecture for runtime detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation, and also contribute to new standards and regulations, by providing certification authorities and standardization committees with the scientifically validated solutions needed to craft effective standards extended to also address cooperation and system-of-systems issues. The project has 28 partners from 6 European countries, and a budget of about 11 million Euros corresponding to about 1,300 person-months. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2017
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36139 (URN)10.1016/j.micpro.2017.07.003 (DOI)000411544600004 ()2-s2.0-85023607120 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-27 Created: 2017-07-27 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
Sljivo, I., Gallina, B., Carlson, J. & Hansson, H. (2016). Using Safety Contracts to Guide the Integration of Reusable Safety Elements within ISO 26262. In: Proceedings - 2015 IEEE 21st Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2015: . Paper presented at 21st IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2015; Zhangjiajie; China; 18 November 2015 through 20 November 2015; Category numberE5673; Code 118981 (pp. 129-138). , jan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Safety Contracts to Guide the Integration of Reusable Safety Elements within ISO 26262
2016 (English)In: Proceedings - 2015 IEEE 21st Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2015, 2016, Vol. jan, p. 129-138Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Safety-critical systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard. To reduce the cost and time needed to achieve the standard compliance, reuse of safety-relevant components is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying artefacts. Developing reusable safety components out-of-context of a particular system is challenging, as safety is a system property, hence support is needed to capture and validate the context assumptions before integration of the reusable component and its artefacts in-context of the particular system. We have previously developed a concept of strong and weak safety contracts to facilitate systematic reuse of safety-relevant components and their accompanying artefacts. In this work we define a safety contracts development process and provide guidelines to bridge the gap between reuse of safety elements developed out-of-context of a particular system and their integration in the ISO 26262 safety standard. We use a real-world case for demonstration of the process.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-30010 (URN)10.1109/PRDC.2015.12 (DOI)000380403300014 ()2-s2.0-84964371842 (Scopus ID)978-146739376-8 (ISBN)
Conference
21st IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2015; Zhangjiajie; China; 18 November 2015 through 20 November 2015; Category numberE5673; Code 118981
Projects
SYNOPSIS - Safety Analysis for Predictable Software Intensive Systems
Available from: 2015-12-20 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2016-08-18Bibliographically approved
Sljivo, I., Jaradat, O., Bate, I. & Graydon, P. (2015). Deriving Safety Contracts to Support Architecture Design of Safety Critical Systems. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering: . Paper presented at 6th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, HASE 2015; Daytona Beach; United States; 8 January 2015 through 10 January 2015; Category numberE5428; Code 112813 (pp. 126-133). , january
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deriving Safety Contracts to Support Architecture Design of Safety Critical Systems
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, 2015, Vol. january, p. 126-133Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of contracts to enhance the maintainability of safety-critical systems has received a significant amount of research effort in recent years. However some key issues have been identified: the difficulty in dealing with the wide range of properties of systems and deriving contracts to capture those properties; and the challenge of dealing with the inevitable incompleteness of the contracts. In this paper, we explore how the derivation of contracts can be performed based on the results of failure analysis. We use the concept of safety kernels to alleviate the issues. Firstly the safety kernel means that the properties of the system that we may wish to manage can be dealt with at a more abstract level, reducing the challenges of representation and completeness of the “safety” contracts. Secondly the set of safety contracts is reduced so it is possible to reason about their satisfaction in a more rigorous manner.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27904 (URN)10.1109/HASE.2015.27 (DOI)000380911000016 ()2-s2.0-84936877188 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-8111-3 (ISBN)
Conference
6th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, HASE 2015; Daytona Beach; United States; 8 January 2015 through 10 January 2015; Category numberE5428; Code 112813
Projects
SYNOPSIS - Safety Analysis for Predictable Software Intensive SystemsSafeCer - Safety Certification of Software-Intensive Systems with Reusable Components
Available from: 2015-04-26 Created: 2015-04-26 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Šljivo, I. (2015). Facilitating Reuse of Safety Case Artefacts Using Safety Contracts. (Licentiate dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facilitating Reuse of Safety Case Artefacts Using Safety Contracts
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 Safety-critical systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard, which often require a safety case in form of an explained argument supported by evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe to operate in a given context. Developing such systems to comply with a safety standard is a time-consuming and costly process. Reuse within development of such systems is used to reduce the cost and time needed to both develop the system and the accompanying safety case. Reuse of safety-relevant components that constitute the system is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying safety case artefacts that include the safety argument and the supporting evidence. The difficulties with reuse of the such artefacts within safety-critical systems lie mainly in the nature of safety being a system property and the lack of support for systematic reuse of such artefacts.

In this thesis we focus on developing the notion of safety contracts that can be used to facilitate systematic reuse of safety-relevant components and their accompanying artefacts. More specifically, we explore the following issues: in which way such contracts should be specified, how they can be derived, and in which way they can be utilised for reuse of safety artefacts. First, we characterise the contracts as either “strong” or “weak” to facilitate capturing different behaviours reusable components can exhibit in different systems. Then, we present methods for deriving safety contracts from failure analyses. As the basis of the safety-critical systems development lies in the failure analyses and identifying which malfunctions eventually can lead to accidents, we deem that the basis for specifying the safety contracts lies in capturing information identified by such failure analyses within the contracts. Finally, we provide methods for generative reuse of the safety case artefacts by utilising the safety contracts. Moreover, we define a safety contracts development process as guidance for systematic reuse based on the safety contracts. We use a real-world case to demonstrate the proposed process. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2015
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 203
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27906 (URN)978-91-7485-213-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-06-11, Gamma, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
SYNOPSIS - Safety Analysis for Predictable Software Intensive Systems
Available from: 2015-05-05 Created: 2015-04-26 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7382-8437

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