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Enoiu, Eduard Paul, PhDORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2416-4205
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Publications (10 of 30) Show all publications
Strandberg, P. E., Enoiu, E. P., Afzal, W., Daniel, S. & Feldt, R. (2019). Information Flow in Software Testing: An Interview Study with Embedded Software Engineering Practitioners. IEEE Access, 7, 46434-46453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information Flow in Software Testing: An Interview Study with Embedded Software Engineering Practitioners
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 46434-46453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Activities in software testing is a challenge for companies that develop embedded systems where multiple functional teams and technologically difficult tasks are common. This study aims at exploring the information flow in software testing, the perceived challenges and good approaches, for a more effective information flow. We conducted semi-structured interviews with twelve software practitioners working at five organizations in the embedded software industry in Sweden. The interviews were analyzed by means of thematic analysis. The data was classified into six themes that affect the information flow in software testing: testing and troubleshooting, communication, processes, technology, artifacts and organization. We further identified a number of challenges such as poor feedback and understanding exactly what has been tested; and approaches such as fast feedback as well as custom automated test reporting; to achieve an improved information flow. Our results indicate that there are many opportunities to improve this information flow: a first mitigation step is to better understand the challenges and approaches. Future work is needed to realize this in practice, for example to shorten feedback cycles between roles, as well as enhance exploration and visualization of test results

National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40930 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2909093 (DOI)000465621200001 ()2-s2.0-85064750453 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20150277
Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Lindström, B., Saadatmand, M., Mousavi, M. R. & Enoiu, E. P. (2019). Message from the ITEQS 2019 chairs. In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019; Xi'an; China; 22 April 2019 through 27 April 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8728966.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Message from the ITEQS 2019 chairs
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, article id 8728966Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44913 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW.2019.00013 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068424130 (Scopus ID)
Conference
12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019; Xi'an; China; 22 April 2019 through 27 April 2019
Note

Export Date: 18 July 2019; Editorial

Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2019-07-18Bibliographically approved
Fifo, M., Enoiu, E. P. & Afzal, W. (2019). On Measuring Combinatorial Coverage of Manually Created Test Cases for Industrial Software. In: International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops ICSTW19: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST), 22 Apr 2019, Xian, China (pp. 264-267).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Measuring Combinatorial Coverage of Manually Created Test Cases for Industrial Software
2019 (English)In: International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops ICSTW19, 2019, p. 264-267Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Combinatorial coverage has been proposed as a way to measure the quality of test cases by using the input interaction characteristics. This paper describes the results of empirically measuring combinatorial coverage of manually created test cases by experienced industrial engineers. We found that manual test cases achieve on average 78% 2-way combinatorial coverage, 57% 3-way coverage, 40% 4-way coverage, 20% 5-way combinatorial coverage and 13% for 6-way combinatorial coverage. These manual test cases can be augmented to achieve 100% combinatorial coverage for 2-way and 3-way interactions by adding eight and 66 missing tests on average, respectively. For 4-way interactions, full combinatorial coverage can achieved by adding 658 missing tests. For 5-way and 6-way interactions, full combinatorial coverage can be achieved by adding 5163 and 6170 missing tests on average, respectively. The results of this paper suggest that manual tests created by industrial engineers do no achieve high combinatorial coverage and can be improved by using combinatorial testing at the expense of the number of test cases to be executed.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43914 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW.2019.00062 (DOI)000477742600038 ()
Conference
12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST), 22 Apr 2019, Xian, China
Projects
MegaMaRt2 - Megamodelling at Runtime (ECSEL/Vinnova)XIVT - eXcellence in Variant Testing
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Enoiu, E. P. & Frasheri, M. (2019). Test agents: The next generation of test cases. In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019; Xi'an; China; 22 April 2019 through 27 April 2019 (pp. 305-308). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Test agents: The next generation of test cases
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 305-308Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Growth of software size, lack of resources to perform regression testing, and failure to detect bugs faster have seen increased reliance on continuous integration and test automation. Even with greater hardware and software resources dedicated to test automation, software testing is faced with enormous challenges, resulting in increased dependence on centralized and complex mechanisms for automated test case selection as part of continuous integration. These mechanisms are currently using static entities called test cases that are concretely realized as executable scripts. Our key vision is to provide test cases with more reasoning, adaptive behavior and learning capabilities by using the concepts of software agents. We refer to such test cases as test agents. The model that underlie a test agent is capable of flexible and autonomous actions in order to meet overall testing objectives. Our goal is to increase the decentralization of regression testing by letting test agents to know for themselves when they should be executing, how they should update their purpose, and when they should interact with each other. In this paper, we envision test agents that display such adaptive autonomous behavior. Existing and emerging developments and challenges regarding the use of test agents are explored - in particular, new research that seeks to use adaptive autonomous agents in software testing. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Adaptive, Agent, Autonomous, Regression, Software testing, Test automation, Test design
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44914 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW.2019.00070 (DOI)000477742600046 ()2-s2.0-85068394558 (Scopus ID)9781728108889 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019; Xi'an; China; 22 April 2019 through 27 April 2019
Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Ericsson, S. & Enoiu, E. P. (2018). Combinatorial modeling and test case generation for industrial control software using ACTS. In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018: . Paper presented at 18th IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, 16 July 2018 through 20 July 2018 (pp. 414-425). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combinatorial modeling and test case generation for industrial control software using ACTS
2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 414-425Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Combinatorial testing has been suggested as an effective method of creating test cases at a lower cost. However, industrially applicable tools for modeling and combinatorial test generation are still scarce. As a direct effect, combinatorial testing has only seen a limited uptake in industry that calls into question its practical usefulness. This lack of evidence is especially troublesome if we consider the use of combinatorial test generation for industrial safety-critical control software, such as are found in trains, airplanes, and power plants. To study the industrial application of combinatorial testing, we evaluated ACTS, a popular tool for combinatorial modeling and test generation, in terms of applicability and test efficiency on industrial-sized IEC 61131-3 industrial control software running on Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). We assessed ACTS in terms of its direct applicability in combinatorial modeling of IEC 61131-3 industrial software and the efficiency of ACTS in terms of generation time and test suite size. We used 17 industrial control programs provided by Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB and used in a train control management system. Our results show that not all combinations of algorithms and interaction strengths could generate a test suite within a realistic cut-off time. The results of the modeling process and the efficiency evaluation of ACTS are useful for practitioners considering to use combinatorial testing for industrial control software as well as for researchers trying to improve the use of such combinatorial testing techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
Keywords
Accident prevention, Application programs, Combinatorial mathematics, Computer control, Computer software selection and evaluation, Efficiency, Industrial plants, Petroleum reservoir evaluation, Programmable logic controllers, Risk management, Software reliability, Bombardier Transportation, Combinatorial modeling, Combinatorial testing, Efficiency evaluation, Industrial controls, Interaction strength, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Test case generation, Software testing
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40745 (URN)10.1109/QRS.2018.00055 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052318599 (Scopus ID)9781538677575 (ISBN)
Conference
18th IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, 16 July 2018 through 20 July 2018
Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
Hussain, A., Tiwari, S., Suryadevara, J. & Enoiu, E. P. (2018). From Modeling to Test Case Generation in the Industrial Embedded System Domain. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at First International Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering for Design-Runtime Interaction in Complex Systems MDE@DeRun, 28 Jun 2018, Toulouse, France (pp. 4999-505). , 11176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Modeling to Test Case Generation in the Industrial Embedded System Domain
2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2018, Vol. 11176, p. 4999-505Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Model-based testing (MBT) is the process of generating test cases from specification models representing system requirements and the desired functionality. The generated test cases are then executed on the system under test in an attempt to obtain a pass or fail verdict. While different MBT techniques have been developed, only a few target the real-world industrial embedded system domain and show evidence on its applicability. As a consequence, there is a serious need to investigate the use of MBT and the evidence on how modeling and test generation can improve the current way of manually creating test cases based on natural language requirements. In this paper, we describe an on-going investigation being carried out to improve the current testing processes by using the MBT approach within an industrial context. Our results suggest that activity and structure diagrams, developed under MBT, are useful for describing the test specification of an accelerator pedal control function. The use of MBT results in less number of test cases compared to manual testing performed by industrial engineers.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40874 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-04771-9_35 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058510115 (Scopus ID)
Conference
First International Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering for Design-Runtime Interaction in Complex Systems MDE@DeRun, 28 Jun 2018, Toulouse, France
Projects
MegaMaRt2 - Megamodelling at Runtime (ECSEL/Vinnova)
Available from: 2018-09-20 Created: 2018-09-20 Last updated: 2019-01-04Bibliographically approved
Flemström, D., Enoiu, E. P., Afzal, W., Daniel, S., Gustafsson, T. & Kobetski, A. (2018). From natural language requirements to passive test cases using guarded assertions. In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018: . Paper presented at 18th IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, 16 July 2018 through 20 July 2018 (pp. 470-481). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From natural language requirements to passive test cases using guarded assertions
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 470-481Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In large-scale embedded system development, requirements are often expressed in natural language. Translating these requirements to executable test cases, while keeping the test cases and requirements aligned, is a challenging task. While such a transformation typically requires extensive domain knowledge, we show that a systematic process in combination with passive testing would facilitate the translation as well as linking the requirements to tests. Passive testing approaches observe the behavior of the system and test their correctness without interfering with the normal behavior. We use a specific approach to passive testing: guarded assertions (G/A). This paper presents a method for transforming system requirements expressed in natural language into G/As. We further present a proof of concept evaluation, performed at Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, in which we show how the process would be used, together with practical advice of the reasoning behind the translation steps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
Keywords
Computer software selection and evaluation, Embedded systems, Natural language processing systems, Software reliability, Bombardier Transportation, Domain knowledge, Large scale embedded systems, Natural language requirements, Natural languages, Proof of concept, System requirements, Systematic process, Translation (languages)
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40744 (URN)10.1109/QRS.2018.00060 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052319900 (Scopus ID)9781538677575 (ISBN)
Conference
18th IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, 16 July 2018 through 20 July 2018
Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
Enoiu, E. P. & Frasheri, M. (2018). Test Agents: Adaptive, Autonomous and Intelligent Test Cases.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Test Agents: Adaptive, Autonomous and Intelligent Test Cases
2018 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Growth of software size, lack of resources to perform regression testing, and failure to detect bugs faster have seen increased reliance on continuous integration and test automation. Even with greater hardware and software resources dedicated to test automation, software testing is faced with enormous challenges, resulting in increased dependence on complex mechanisms for automated test case selection and prioritisation as part of a continuous integration framework. These mechanisms are currently using simple entities called test cases that are concretely realised as executable scripts. Our key idea is to provide test cases with more reasoning, adaptive behaviour and learning capabilities by using the concepts of intelligent software agents. We refer to such test cases as test agents. The model that underlie a test agent is capable of flexible and autonomous actions in order to meet overall testing objectives. Our goal is to increase the decentralisation of regression testing by letting test agents to know for themselves when they should be executing, how they should update their purpose, and when they should interact with each other. In this paper, we envision software test agents that display such adaptive autonomous behaviour. Emerging developments and challenges regarding the use of test agents are explored-in particular, new research that seeks to use adaptive autonomous agents in software testing.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41696 (URN)
Projects
MegaMaRt2 - Megamodelling at Runtime (ECSEL/Vinnova)Software Center: Aspects of Automated Testing
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Enoiu, E. P., Daniel, S., Causevic, A. & Pettersson, P. (2017). A Comparative Study of Manual and Automated Testing for Industrial Control Software. In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017: . Paper presented at 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017; Tokyo; Japan; 13 March 2017 through 17 March 2017 (pp. 412-417). , Article ID 7927994.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative Study of Manual and Automated Testing for Industrial Control Software
2017 (English)In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017, 2017, p. 412-417, article id 7927994Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automated test generation has been suggested as a way of creating tests at a lower cost. Nonetheless, it is not very well studied how such tests compare to manually written ones in terms of cost and effectiveness. This is particularly true for industrial control software, where strict requirements on both specification-based testing and code coverage typically are met with rigorous manual testing. To address this issue, we conducted a case study in which we compared manually and automatically created tests. We used recently developed real-world industrial programs written in the IEC 61131-3, a popular programming language for developing industrial control systems using programmable logic controllers. The results show that automatically generated tests achieve similar code coverage as manually created tests, but in a fraction of the time (an average improvement of roughly 90%). We also found that the use of an automated test generation tool does not result in better fault detection in terms of mutation score compared to manual testing. Specifically, manual tests more effectively detect logical, timer and negation type of faults, compared to automatically generated tests. The results underscore the need to further study how manual testing is performed in industrial practice and the extent to which automated test generation can be used in the development of reliable systems.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-34088 (URN)10.1109/ICST.2017.44 (DOI)000403393600037 ()2-s2.0-85020701655 (Scopus ID)9781509060313 (ISBN)
Conference
10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017; Tokyo; Japan; 13 March 2017 through 17 March 2017
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsTOCSYC - Testing of Critical System Characteristics (KKS)AGENTS - Automated Generation of Tests for Simulated Software Systems (KKS)
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
Marinescu, R., Filipovikj, P., Enoiu, E. P., Larsson, J. & Seceleanu, C. (2017). An Energy-aware Mutation Testing Framework for EAST-ADL Architectural Models. In: 29th Nordic Workshop on Programming Theory NWPT'17: . Paper presented at 29th Nordic Workshop on Programming Theory NWPT'17, 01 Nov 2017, Turku, Finland , Finland (pp. 40-43). Turku, Finland , Finland: TUCS Lecture Notes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Energy-aware Mutation Testing Framework for EAST-ADL Architectural Models
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2017 (English)In: 29th Nordic Workshop on Programming Theory NWPT'17, Turku, Finland , Finland: TUCS Lecture Notes , 2017, p. 40-43Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Early design artifacts of embedded systems, such as architectural models, represent convenient abstractions for reasoning about a system’s structure and functionality. One such example is the Electronic Architecture and Software Tools-Architecture Description Language (EAST-ADL), a domain-specific architectural language that targets the automotive industry. EAST-ADL is used to represent both hardware and software elements, as well as related extra-functional information (e.g., timing properties, triggering information, resource consumption). Testing architectural models is an important activity in engineering large-scale industrial systems, which sparks a growing research interest. Modern embedded systems, such as autonomous vehicles and robots, have low-energy computing demands, making testing for energy usage increasingly important. Nevertheless, testing resource-aware properties of architectural models has received less attention than the functional testing of such models. In our previous work, we have outlined a method for testing energy consumption in embedded systems using manually created faults based on statistical model checking of a priced formal system model. In this paper, we extend our previous work by showing how mutation testing] can be used to generate and select test cases based on the concept of energy-aware mutants– small syntactic modifications in the architectural model, intended to mimic real energy faults. Test cases that can distinguish a certain behavior from its mutations are sensitive to changes in the model, and hence considered to be good at detecting faults. The main contributions of this paper are: (i) an approach for creating energy-related mutants for EAST-ADL architectural models, (ii) a method for overcoming the equivalent mutant problem (i.e., the problem of finding a test case which can distinguish the observable behavior of a mutant from the original one), (iii) a test generation approach based on UPPAAL Statistical Model Checker (SMC), and (iv) a test selection criteria based on mutation analysis using our MATS tool.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Turku, Finland , Finland: TUCS Lecture Notes, 2017
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37338 (URN)978-952-12-3608-2 (ISBN)
Conference
29th Nordic Workshop on Programming Theory NWPT'17, 01 Nov 2017, Turku, Finland , Finland
Projects
VeriSpec - Structured Specification and Automated Verification for Automotive Functional SafetyCAMI - Artificially intelligent ecosystem for self-management and sustainable quality of life in AAL (Ambient Assisted Living)DPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and ControlMegaMaRt2 - Megamodelling at Runtime (ECSEL/Vinnova)
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2416-4205

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