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Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad HosseinORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3469-1834
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Publications (10 of 96) Show all publications
Satka, Z., Ashjaei, S. M., Fotouhi, H., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2023). A comprehensive systematic review of integration of time sensitive networking and 5G communication. Journal of systems architecture, 138, Article ID 102852.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive systematic review of integration of time sensitive networking and 5G communication
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2023 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 138, article id 102852Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many industrial real-time applications in various domains, e.g., automotive, industrial automation, industrial IoT, and industry 4.0, require ultra-low end-to-end network latency, often in the order of 10 milliseconds or less. The IEEE 802.1 time-sensitive networking (TSN) is a set of standards that supports the required low-latency wired communication with ultra-low jitter. The flexibility of such a wired connection can be increased if it is integrated with a mobile wireless network. The fifth generation of cellular networks (5G) is capable of supporting the required levels of network latency with the Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC) service. To fully utilize the potential of these two technologies (TSN and 5G) in industrial applications, seamless integration of the TSN wired-based network with the 5G wireless-based network is needed. In this article, we provide a comprehensive and well-structured snapshot of the existing research on TSN-5G integration. In this regard, we present the planning, execution, and analysis results of the systematic review. We also identify the trends, technical characteristics, and potential gaps in the state of the art, thus highlighting future research directions in the integration of TSN and 5G communication technologies. We notice that 73% of the primary studies address the time synchronization in the integration of TSN and 5G technologies, introducing approaches with an accuracy starting from the levels of hundred nanoseconds to one microsecond. Majority of primary studies aim at optimizing communication latency in their approach, which is a key quality attribute in automotive and industrial automation applications today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Time-Sensitive Networking, TSN, 5G, TSN-5G, URLLC, Industry 4.0
National Category
Communication Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62062 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2023.102852 (DOI)000956098500001 ()2-s2.0-85149863981 (Scopus ID)
Projects
PROVIDENT
Funder
Vinnova, 16533
Available from: 2023-03-13 Created: 2023-03-13 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved
Alvarez Vadillo, I., Bujosa Mateu, D., Johansson, B., Ashjaei, S. M. & Mubeen, S. (2023). Centralised Architecture for the Automatic Self-Configuration of Industrial Networks. In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA: . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Centralised Architecture for the Automatic Self-Configuration of Industrial Networks
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2023 (English)In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Novel production paradigms aim at increasing the efficiency and flexibility of production systems. Nonetheless, traditional industrial infrastructures lack the mechanisms needed to support these new paradigms. One of the main limiting factors is the architecture, which follows the automation pyramid in which subsystems are divided in layers depending on their functionalities. This allowed to meet the timing and dependability requirements of the production subsystems, however at the cost of limiting the exchange of information required to provide increased flexibility to the system. For this reason, in this paper we propose a new industrial architecture with a single network infrastructure to connect all the devices that conform to the industrial systems. On top of that, we design an Automatic Network Configurator to support the automatic configuration of the system. To assess the feasibility of our design and evaluate its performance, we implement the first instance of the architecture capable of supporting changes in the traffic requirements during run-time, i.e., without stopping or disrupting the system's operation. Furthermore, we use the implemented instance to measure the time required for reconfigurations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Industrial Architecture, Self-Configuring Networks, Automation, Centralized architecture, Exchange of information, Increased flexibility, Industrial infrastructure, Industrial networks, Production system, Self configuration, Single-networks, Network architecture
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64698 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275620 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175486073 (Scopus ID)9798350339918 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Berisa, A., Panjevic, A., Kovac, I., Lyngbäck, H., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., . . . Mubeen, S. (2023). Comparative Evaluation of Various Generations of Controller Area Network Based on Timing Analysis. In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA: . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Evaluation of Various Generations of Controller Area Network Based on Timing Analysis
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2023 (English)In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper performs a comparative evaluation of various generations of Controller Area Network (CAN), including the classical CAN, CAN Flexible Data-Rate (FD), and CAN Extra Long (XL). We utilize response-time analysis for the evaluation. In this regard, we identify that the state of the art lacks the response-time analysis for CAN XL. Hence, we discuss the worst-case transmission times calculations for CAN XL frames and incorporate them to the existing analysis for CAN to support response-time analysis of CAN XL frames. Using the extended analysis, we perform a comparative evaluation of the three generations of CAN by analyzing an automotive industrial use case. In crux, we show that using CAN FD is more advantageous than the classical CAN and CAN XL when using frames with payloads of up to 8 bytes, despite the fact that CAN XL supports higher bit rates. For frames with 12-64 bytes payloads, CAN FD performs better than CAN XL when running at the same bit rate, but CAN XL performs better when running at a higher bit rate. Additionally, we discovered that CAN XL performs better than the classical CAN and CAN FD when the frame payload is over 64 bytes, even if it runs at the same or higher bit rates than CAN FD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
automotive, CAN FD, CAN XL, Controller Area Network, Control system synthesis, Controllers, Finite difference method, Process control, Automotives, Classical controllers, Comparative evaluations, Controller area network flexible data-rate, Controller area network XL, Controller-area network, Data-rate, Response-time analysis, Timing circuits
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64693 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275549 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175488822 (Scopus ID)9798350339918 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Agerskans, N., Ashjaei, S. M., Bruch, J. & Chirumalla, K. (2023). Critical Factors for Selecting and Integrating Digital Technologies to Enable Smart Production: A Data Value Chain Perspective. In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology: . Paper presented at IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology (pp. 311-325). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical Factors for Selecting and Integrating Digital Technologies to Enable Smart Production: A Data Value Chain Perspective
2023 (English)In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, p. 311-325Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the development towards Industry 5.0, manufacturing companies are developing towards Smart Production, i.e., using data as a resource to interconnect the elements in the production system to learn and adapt accordingly for a more resource-efficient and sustainable production. This requires selecting and integrating digital technologies for the entire data lifecycle, also referred to as the data value chain. However, manufacturing companies are facing many challenges related to building data value chains to achieve the desired benefits of Smart Production. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the critical factors of selecting and integrating digital technologies for efficiently benefiting data value chains for Smart Production. This paper employed a qualitative-based multiple case study design involving manufacturing companies within different industries and of different sizes. The paper also analyses two Smart Production cases in detail by mapping the data flow using a technology selection and integration framework to propose solutions to the existing challenges. By analyzing the two in-depth studies and additionally two reference cases, 13 themes of critical factors for selecting and integrating digital technologies were identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Keywords
Digital Transformation, Industry 5.0, Production Development, Smart Manufacturing, Technology Integration, Technology Selection, Data integration, Engineering education, Critical factors, Data values, Digital technologies, Value chains, Life cycle
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64438 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-43662-8_23 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172421353 (Scopus ID)9783031436611 (ISBN)
Conference
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology
Available from: 2023-10-09 Created: 2023-10-09 Last updated: 2023-11-16Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Aybek, M. O., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M., Lundbäck, J. & Mubeen, S. (2023). End-to-end Timing Modeling and Analysis of TSN in Component-Based Vehicular Software. In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC: . Paper presented at Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2023 (pp. 126-135). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-to-end Timing Modeling and Analysis of TSN in Component-Based Vehicular Software
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2023 (English)In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 126-135Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present an end-to-end timing model to capture timing information from software architectures of distributed embedded systems that use network communication based on the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards. Such a model is required as an input to perform end-to-end timing analysis of these systems. Furthermore, we present a methodology that aims at automated extraction of instances of the end-to-end timing model from component-based software architectures of the systems and the TSN network configurations. As a proof of concept, we implement the proposed end-to-end timing model and the extraction methodology in the Rubus Component Model (RCM) and its tool chain Rubus-ICE that are used in the vehicle industry. We demonstrate the usability of the proposed model and methodology by modeling a vehicular industrial use case and performing its timing analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Embedded systems, Network architecture, Software architecture, Timing circuits, Automated extraction, Component based, Component-based software architecture, Distributed embedded system, End to end, Modelling and analysis, Network communications, Timing Analysis, Timing information, Timing modeling, Extraction
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64173 (URN)10.1109/ISORC58943.2023.00025 (DOI)001044268900013 ()2-s2.0-85168757094 (Scopus ID)9798350339024 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2023
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Satka, Z., Barhia, D., Saud, S., Mubeen, S. & Ashjaei, S. M. (2023). Experimental Analysis of Wireless TSN Networks for Real-time Applications. In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA: . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Analysis of Wireless TSN Networks for Real-time Applications
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2023 (English)In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless Time-Sensitive Networks (TSN) are needed to fulfill the requirements of real-time applications in areas where wired connections are not feasible. Wireless TSN combines the real-time capabilities of TSN with the flexibility of wireless connectivity opening a path for new use cases while providing determinism to time-critical scenarios such as autonomous vehicles. Industrial automation is integrating TSN with various wireless technologies such as WiFi, 4G, and 5G. This paper presents an ongoing work which aim is to experimentally analyze the performance of TSN when integrated with 4G, 5G, and WiFi in real-world scenarios. This will help both the researchers and industries to have a clear view of the network performance regarding the end-to-end latency requirements when designing their applications and use cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
TSN-4G, TSN-5G, TSN-WiFi, Wireless Time-Sensitive Networking, 5G mobile communication systems, Wireless local area networks (WLAN), Experimental analysis, Real time capability, Real-time application, Time-critical, Time-sensitive network-4g, Time-sensitive network-5g, Time-sensitive network-wifi, Wired connection, Wireless connectivities, Wi-Fi
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64696 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275665 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175447597 (Scopus ID)9798350339918 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Al-Dulaimy, A., Ashjaei, S. M., Behnam, M., Nolte, T. & Papadopoulos, A. (2023). Fault Tolerance in Cloud Manufacturing: An Overview. In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, vol 495: . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Mobile Computing, Applications, and Services, MobiCASE 2022, Messina, 17 November 2022 through 18 November 2022 (pp. 89-101). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fault Tolerance in Cloud Manufacturing: An Overview
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2023 (English)In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, vol 495, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, p. 89-101Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Utilizing edge and cloud computing to empower the profitability of manufacturing is drastically increasing in modern industries. As a result of that, several challenges have raised over the years that essentially require urgent attention. Among these, coping with different faults in edge and cloud computing and recovering from permanent and temporary faults became prominent issues to be solved. In this paper, we focus on the challenges of applying fault tolerance techniques on edge and cloud computing in the context of manufacturing and we investigate the current state of the proposed approaches by categorizing them into several groups. Moreover, we identify critical gaps in the research domain as open research directions. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Keywords
Cloud computing, Cloud manufacturing, CMfg, Edge computing, Fault tolerance, MaaS, Manufacturing as a Service, Reliability
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63500 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-31891-7_7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85161360896 (Scopus ID)9783031318900 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Mobile Computing, Applications, and Services, MobiCASE 2022, Messina, 17 November 2022 through 18 November 2022
Available from: 2023-06-21 Created: 2023-06-21 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Bujosa Mateu, D., Ashjaei, S. M., Proenza, J., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2023). Improved Clock Synchronization in TSN Networks with Legacy End-Stations.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Clock Synchronization in TSN Networks with Legacy End-Stations
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to enable the adoption of Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) by the industry and be more environmentally sustainable, it is necessary to develop tools to integrate legacy systems with TSN. In this paper, we propose a solution for the coexistence of different time domains from different legacy systems with their corresponding synchronization protocols in a single TSN network. To this end, we experimentally identified the effects of replacing the communications subsystem of a legacy Ethernet-based network with TSN in terms of synchronization. Based on the results, we propose a solution called TALESS (TSN with Legacy End-Stations Synchronization). TALESS is able to identify the drift between the TSN communications subsystem and the integrated legacy devices (end-stations) and modify the TSN schedule to adapt to the different time domains to avoid the effects of the lack of synchronization between them. We validate TALESS through both simulations and experiments on a prototype. Thereby we demonstrate that thanks to TALESS, legacy systems are able to synchronize through TSN and even improve features such as their reception jitter or their integrability with other legacy systems.

Keywords
Legacy support, synchronization, TSN.
National Category
Communication Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62045 (URN)
Available from: 2023-03-09 Created: 2023-03-09 Last updated: 2023-03-21Bibliographically approved
Bujosa Mateu, D., Proenza, J., Papadopoulos, A., Nolte, T. & Ashjaei, S. M. (2023). Introducing Guard Frames to Ensure Schedulability of All TSN Traffic Classes. In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA: . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., September
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing Guard Frames to Ensure Schedulability of All TSN Traffic Classes
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2023 (English)In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, Vol. SeptemberConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Offline scheduling of Scheduled Traffic (ST) in Time-Sensitive Networks (TSN) without taking into account the quality of service of non-ST traffic, e.g., time-sensitive traffic such as Audio-Video Bridging (AVB) traffic, can potentially cause deadline misses for non-ST traffic. In this paper, we report our ongoing work to propose a solution that, regardless of the ST scheduling algorithm being used, can ensure meeting timing requirements for non-ST traffic. To do this, we define a frame called Guard Frame (GF) that will be scheduled together with all ST frames. We show that a proper design for the GFs will leave necessary porosity in the ST schedules to ensure that all non-ST traffic will meet their timing requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
AVB schedulability, offline schedule synthesis, Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN), Quality of service, Audio videos, Audio-video bridging schedulability, Off line scheduling, Offline, Schedulability, Scheduled traffics, Time-sensitive networking, Timing requirements, Traffic class, Scheduling algorithms
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64689 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275532 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175428494 (Scopus ID)9798350339918 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA
Available from: 2023-11-13 Created: 2023-11-13 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Berisa, A., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2023). Investigating and Analyzing CAN-to-TSN Gateway Forwarding Techniques. In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC: . Paper presented at Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2023 (pp. 136-145). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating and Analyzing CAN-to-TSN Gateway Forwarding Techniques
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2023 (English)In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 136-145Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Controller Area Network (CAN) and Ethernet network are expected to co-exist in automotive industry as Ethernet provides a high-bandwidth communication, while CAN is a legacy cost-effective solution. Due to the shortcomings of conventional switched Etherent, such as determinism, IEEE Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) task group developed a set of standards to enhance the switched Ethernet technology providing low-jitter and deterministic communication. Considering these two network domains, we investigate various design approaches for a gateway that connects a CAN domain to a TSN domain. We present three gateway forwarding techniques and we develop end-to-end delay analysis methods for them. Via the analysis methods and applying them to synthetic use cases we show that the intuitive existing approach of encapsulating multiple CAN frames into a single Ethernet frame is not necessarily an efficient solution. In fact, we demonstrate several cases where it is preferable to encapsulate only one CAN frame into a TSN frame, in particular when we use a high speed TSN network. The results have a significant impact on developing such gateways as the implementation of the one-to-one frame encapsulation is considerably simpler than other complex gateway-forwarding techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Automotive industry, Control system synthesis, Cost effectiveness, Gateways (computer networks), IEEE Standards, Analysis method, Controller-area network, Cost-effective solutions, Ethernet networks, Ethernet technology, High bandwidth communication, Legacy costs, Network domains, Switched ethernet, Task groups, Ethernet
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64177 (URN)10.1109/ISORC58943.2023.00026 (DOI)001044268900014 ()2-s2.0-85168775302 (Scopus ID)9798350339024 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2023
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3469-1834

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