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Publications (10 of 165) Show all publications
Dust, L. & Mubeen, S. (2024). Dynamic Priority Scheduling for Periodic Systems Using ROS 2. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, ECBS 2023, Västerås, 16 October 2023 through 18 October 2023 (pp. 239-243). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Priority Scheduling for Periodic Systems Using ROS 2
2024 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2024, p. 239-243Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a novel dynamic priority scheduling algorithm for ROS 2 systems is proposed. The algorithm is based on determining deadlines of callbacks by taking the buffer size and update rates of channels into account. The efficacy of the scheduling algorithm is demonstrated on an illustrative example, where the needed buffer size is reduced in comparison to the conventional single-threaded executor in ROS 2. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2024
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 14390 LNCS
Keywords
Executor, Robot Operating System 2, Scheduling, Robot Operating System, Buffer sizes, Dynamic-priority scheduling, Single-threaded, Scheduling algorithms
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65252 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-49252-5_20 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180156830 (Scopus ID)9783031492518 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, ECBS 2023, Västerås, 16 October 2023 through 18 October 2023
Available from: 2024-01-03 Created: 2024-01-03 Last updated: 2024-01-03Bibliographically approved
Bucaioni, A., Pelliccione, P. & Mubeen, S. (2024). Modelling centralised automotive E/E software architectures. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 59, Article ID 102289.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling centralised automotive E/E software architectures
2024 (English)In: Advanced Engineering Informatics, ISSN 1474-0346, E-ISSN 1873-5320, Vol. 59, article id 102289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The automotive domain is living in an exciting period triggered by challenging business and technology drivers, like electrification, autonomous driving, over-the-air software updates and connected vehicles, just to mention a few. This profoundly impacted the electric and electronic automotive architecture and pushed more and more manufacturers to shift towards more centralised electric and electronic architectures for their future automotive software systems. In fact, future centralised architectures are considered to be pivotal to meeting the above-mentioned market needs, as well as evolving customer requirements. In this work, we first analyse the readiness of four main automotive architectural languages to represent novel vehicle-centralised architectures. Based on the analysis results, we propose an extension to one of these languages to fully support the modelling of technical reference architectures for centralised vehicles. We validate the proposed extension using workshops with experts in the automotive domain and using an automotive use case describing an autonomous quarry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Architectural languages, Automotive software architectures, Centralised architectures, Electric and Electronic (E/E) architecture, Modeling languages, Vehicles, Automotive domains, Automotive software, Automotive software architecture, Automotives, Business drivers, Centralised, Centralized architecture, Electric and electronic architectures, Technology drivers, Software architecture
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65144 (URN)10.1016/j.aei.2023.102289 (DOI)001140064100001 ()2-s2.0-85179583938 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-21 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Ciccozzi, F., Addazi, L., Abbaspour Asadollah, S., Lisper, B., Masud, A. N. & Mubeen, S. (2023). A Comprehensive Exploration of Languages for Parallel Computing. ACM Computing Surveys, 55(2), Article ID 21.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comprehensive Exploration of Languages for Parallel Computing
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2023 (English)In: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 55, no 2, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Software-intensive systems in most domains, from autonomous vehicles to health, are becoming predominantly parallel to efficiently manage large amount of data in short (even real-) time. There is an incredibly rich literature on languages for parallel computing, thus it is difficult for researchers and practitioners, even experienced in this very field, to get a grasp on them. With this work we provide a comprehensive, structured, and detailed snapshot of documented research on those languages to identify trends, technical characteristics, open challenges, and research directions. In this article, we report on planning, execution, and results of our systematic peer-reviewed as well as grey literature review, which aimed at providing such a snapshot by analysing 225 studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, 2023
Keywords
Parallel computing, programming, modelling, languages, frameworks, systematic literature review
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-58152 (URN)10.1145/3485008 (DOI)000778458900001 ()2-s2.0-85128233360 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-23 Created: 2022-06-23 Last updated: 2022-08-29Bibliographically approved
Satka, Z., Ashjaei, S. M., Fotouhi, H., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M. & Mubeen, S. (2023). A comprehensive systematic review of integration of time sensitive networking and 5G communication. Journal of systems architecture, 138, Article ID 102852.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive systematic review of integration of time sensitive networking and 5G communication
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2023 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 138, article id 102852Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many industrial real-time applications in various domains, e.g., automotive, industrial automation, industrial IoT, and industry 4.0, require ultra-low end-to-end network latency, often in the order of 10 milliseconds or less. The IEEE 802.1 time-sensitive networking (TSN) is a set of standards that supports the required low-latency wired communication with ultra-low jitter. The flexibility of such a wired connection can be increased if it is integrated with a mobile wireless network. The fifth generation of cellular networks (5G) is capable of supporting the required levels of network latency with the Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC) service. To fully utilize the potential of these two technologies (TSN and 5G) in industrial applications, seamless integration of the TSN wired-based network with the 5G wireless-based network is needed. In this article, we provide a comprehensive and well-structured snapshot of the existing research on TSN-5G integration. In this regard, we present the planning, execution, and analysis results of the systematic review. We also identify the trends, technical characteristics, and potential gaps in the state of the art, thus highlighting future research directions in the integration of TSN and 5G communication technologies. We notice that 73% of the primary studies address the time synchronization in the integration of TSN and 5G technologies, introducing approaches with an accuracy starting from the levels of hundred nanoseconds to one microsecond. Majority of primary studies aim at optimizing communication latency in their approach, which is a key quality attribute in automotive and industrial automation applications today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Time-Sensitive Networking, TSN, 5G, TSN-5G, URLLC, Industry 4.0
National Category
Communication Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62062 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2023.102852 (DOI)000956098500001 ()2-s2.0-85149863981 (Scopus ID)
Projects
PROVIDENT
Funder
Vinnova, 16533
Available from: 2023-03-13 Created: 2023-03-13 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved
Alvarez Vadillo, I., Bujosa Mateu, D., Johansson, B., Ashjaei, S. M. & Mubeen, S. (2023). Centralised Architecture for the Automatic Self-Configuration of Industrial Networks. In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA: . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Centralised Architecture for the Automatic Self-Configuration of Industrial Networks
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2023 (English)In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Novel production paradigms aim at increasing the efficiency and flexibility of production systems. Nonetheless, traditional industrial infrastructures lack the mechanisms needed to support these new paradigms. One of the main limiting factors is the architecture, which follows the automation pyramid in which subsystems are divided in layers depending on their functionalities. This allowed to meet the timing and dependability requirements of the production subsystems, however at the cost of limiting the exchange of information required to provide increased flexibility to the system. For this reason, in this paper we propose a new industrial architecture with a single network infrastructure to connect all the devices that conform to the industrial systems. On top of that, we design an Automatic Network Configurator to support the automatic configuration of the system. To assess the feasibility of our design and evaluate its performance, we implement the first instance of the architecture capable of supporting changes in the traffic requirements during run-time, i.e., without stopping or disrupting the system's operation. Furthermore, we use the implemented instance to measure the time required for reconfigurations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Industrial Architecture, Self-Configuring Networks, Automation, Centralized architecture, Exchange of information, Increased flexibility, Industrial infrastructure, Industrial networks, Production system, Self configuration, Single-networks, Network architecture
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64698 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275620 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175486073 (Scopus ID)9798350339918 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Berisa, A., Panjevic, A., Kovac, I., Lyngbäck, H., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., . . . Mubeen, S. (2023). Comparative Evaluation of Various Generations of Controller Area Network Based on Timing Analysis. In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA: . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Evaluation of Various Generations of Controller Area Network Based on Timing Analysis
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2023 (English)In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper performs a comparative evaluation of various generations of Controller Area Network (CAN), including the classical CAN, CAN Flexible Data-Rate (FD), and CAN Extra Long (XL). We utilize response-time analysis for the evaluation. In this regard, we identify that the state of the art lacks the response-time analysis for CAN XL. Hence, we discuss the worst-case transmission times calculations for CAN XL frames and incorporate them to the existing analysis for CAN to support response-time analysis of CAN XL frames. Using the extended analysis, we perform a comparative evaluation of the three generations of CAN by analyzing an automotive industrial use case. In crux, we show that using CAN FD is more advantageous than the classical CAN and CAN XL when using frames with payloads of up to 8 bytes, despite the fact that CAN XL supports higher bit rates. For frames with 12-64 bytes payloads, CAN FD performs better than CAN XL when running at the same bit rate, but CAN XL performs better when running at a higher bit rate. Additionally, we discovered that CAN XL performs better than the classical CAN and CAN FD when the frame payload is over 64 bytes, even if it runs at the same or higher bit rates than CAN FD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
automotive, CAN FD, CAN XL, Controller Area Network, Control system synthesis, Controllers, Finite difference method, Process control, Automotives, Classical controllers, Comparative evaluations, Controller area network flexible data-rate, Controller area network XL, Controller-area network, Data-rate, Response-time analysis, Timing circuits
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64693 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275549 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175488822 (Scopus ID)9798350339918 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Opacin, S., Rizvanovic, L., Leander, B., Mubeen, S. & Causevic, A. (2023). Developing and Evaluating MQTT Connectivity for an Industrial Controller. In: Mediterranean Conf. Embed. Comput., MECO: . Paper presented at 12th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing, MECO 2023. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing and Evaluating MQTT Connectivity for an Industrial Controller
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2023 (English)In: Mediterranean Conf. Embed. Comput., MECO, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Technical advances as well as continuously evolving business demands are reshaping the need for flexible connectivity in industrial control systems. A way to achieve such needs is by using a service-oriented approach, where a connectivity service middleware provides controller as well as protocol-specific interfaces. The Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol is a widely used protocol for device-to-device communication in the Internet of Things (IoT). However it is not commonly integrated in industrial control systems. To address this gap, this paper describes the development and implementation of a prototype of a connectivity service middleware for MQTT within an industrial private control network. The prototype implementation is done in the context of an industrial controller, and used in a simulated modular automation system. Furthermore, various deployment scenarios are evaluated with respect to response time and scalability of the connectivity service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Automation, Control systems, Information services, Internet of things, Middleware, Business demands, Connectivity services, Device-to-Device communications, Industrial control systems, Industrial controllers, Service middlewares, Service-oriented approaches, Specific interface, Technical advances, Transport protocols, Controllers
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63917 (URN)10.1109/MECO58584.2023.10154921 (DOI)2-s2.0-85164948603 (Scopus ID)9798350322910 (ISBN)
Conference
12th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing, MECO 2023
Available from: 2023-07-26 Created: 2023-07-26 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Salman Shaik, M., Papadopoulos, A., Mubeen, S. & Nolte, T. (2023). Dispatching Deadline Constrained Jobs in Edge Computing Systems. In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA: . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dispatching Deadline Constrained Jobs in Edge Computing Systems
2023 (English)In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The edge computing paradigm extends the architectural space of real-time systems by bringing the capabilities of the cloud to the edge. Unlike cloud-native systems designed for mean response times, real-time industrial embedded systems are designed to control a single physical system, such as a manipulator arm or a mobile robot, that requires temporal predictability. We consider the problem of dispatching and scheduling of jobs with deadlines that can be offloaded to the edge and propose DAL, a deadline-aware load balancing and scheduling framework that leverages the availability of on-demand computing resources along with an on-arrival dispatching scheme to manage temporal requirements of such offloaded applications. The evaluation indicates that DAL can achieve reasonably good performance even when execution times, arrival times, and deadlines vary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Edge computing, Embedded systems, Interactive computer systems, Manipulators, Architectural space, Computing paradigm, Computing system, Embedded-system, Mean response time, Native system, Physical systems, Real - Time system, Real- time, Real time systems
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64690 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275562 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175455753 (Scopus ID)9798350339918 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA
Available from: 2023-11-13 Created: 2023-11-13 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Houtan, B., Aybek, M. O., Ashjaei, S. M., Daneshtalab, M., Sjödin, M., Lundbäck, J. & Mubeen, S. (2023). End-to-end Timing Modeling and Analysis of TSN in Component-Based Vehicular Software. In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC: . Paper presented at Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2023 (pp. 126-135). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-to-end Timing Modeling and Analysis of TSN in Component-Based Vehicular Software
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2023 (English)In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 126-135Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present an end-to-end timing model to capture timing information from software architectures of distributed embedded systems that use network communication based on the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards. Such a model is required as an input to perform end-to-end timing analysis of these systems. Furthermore, we present a methodology that aims at automated extraction of instances of the end-to-end timing model from component-based software architectures of the systems and the TSN network configurations. As a proof of concept, we implement the proposed end-to-end timing model and the extraction methodology in the Rubus Component Model (RCM) and its tool chain Rubus-ICE that are used in the vehicle industry. We demonstrate the usability of the proposed model and methodology by modeling a vehicular industrial use case and performing its timing analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Embedded systems, Network architecture, Software architecture, Timing circuits, Automated extraction, Component based, Component-based software architecture, Distributed embedded system, End to end, Modelling and analysis, Network communications, Timing Analysis, Timing information, Timing modeling, Extraction
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64173 (URN)10.1109/ISORC58943.2023.00025 (DOI)001044268900013 ()2-s2.0-85168757094 (Scopus ID)9798350339024 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2023
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Salman Shaik, M., Papadopoulos, A., Mubeen, S. & Nolte, T. (2023). Evaluating Dispatching and Scheduling Strategies for Firm Real-Time Jobs in Edge Computing. In: IECON Proc: . Paper presented at IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Dispatching and Scheduling Strategies for Firm Real-Time Jobs in Edge Computing
2023 (English)In: IECON Proc, IEEE Computer Society , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We consider the problem of on-arrival dispatching and scheduling jobs with stochastic execution times, inter-arrival times, and deadlines in multi-server fog and edge computing platforms. In terms of mean response times, it has been shown that size-based scheduling policies, when combined with dispatching policies such as join-shortest-queue, provide better performance over policies such as first-in-first-out. Since job sizes may not always be known apriori, prediction-based policies have been shown to perform reasonably well. However, little is known about the performance of prediction-based policies for jobs with firm deadlines. In this paper, we address this issue by considering the number of jobs that complete within their deadlines as a performance metric and investigate, using simulations, the performance of a prediction-based shortest-job-first scheduling policy for the considered metric and compare it against scheduling policies that prioritize based on deadlines (EDF) and arrival times (FIFO). The evaluation indicates that in under-loaded conditions, the prediction-based policy is outperformed by both FIFO and EDF policies. However, in overloaded scenarios, the prediction-based policy offers slightly better performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2023
Keywords
Forecasting, Stochastic systems, Edge computing, Inter-arrival time, Multiservers, Performance, Prediction-based, Real- time, Scheduling jobs, Scheduling policies, Scheduling strategies, Stochastics
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65149 (URN)10.1109/IECON51785.2023.10312523 (DOI)2-s2.0-85179512797 (Scopus ID)9798350331820 (ISBN)
Conference
IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference)
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-21 Last updated: 2023-12-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3242-6113

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