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Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Abbaspour Asadollah, S., Inam, R. & Hansson, H. (2015). A Survey on Testing for Cyber Physical System. In: Testing Software and Systems: 27th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2015, Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, November 23-25, 2015, Proceedings. Paper presented at The 27th International Conference on Testing Software and Systems ICTSS 2015, 23 Nov 2015, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (pp. 194-207).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Survey on Testing for Cyber Physical System
2015 (English)In: Testing Software and Systems: 27th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2015, Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, November 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, 2015, p. 194-207Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) bridge the cyber-world of computing and communications with the physical world and require development of secure and reliable software. It asserts a big challenge not only on testing and verifying the correctness of all physical and cyber components of such big systems, but also on integration of these components. This paper develops a categorization of multiple levels of testing required to test CPS and makes a comparison of these levels with the levels of software testing based on the V-model. It presents a detailed state-of-the-art survey on the testing approaches performed on the CPS. Further, it provides challenges in CPS testing.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 9447
Keywords
Testing, Cyber physical systems, Survey
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29665 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-25945-1_12 (DOI)000367586500012 ()2-s2.0-84952786814 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-25944-4 (ISBN)
Conference
The 27th International Conference on Testing Software and Systems ICTSS 2015, 23 Nov 2015, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Projects
SYNOPSIS - Safety Analysis for Predictable Software Intensive Systems
Available from: 2015-12-02 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2016-05-17Bibliographically approved
Inam, R., Behnam, M., Nolte, T. & Sjödin, M. (2015). Compositional Analysis for the Multi-Resource Server. In: 20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15: . Paper presented at 20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15, 8-11 Sep 2015, Luxembourg, Luxemburg (pp. Article number 7301431). Luxembourg, Luxemburg: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compositional Analysis for the Multi-Resource Server
2015 (English)In: 20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15, Luxembourg, Luxemburg: IEEE , 2015, p. Article number 7301431-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Multi-Resource Server (MRS) technique has been proposed to enable predictable execution of memory intensive real-time applications on COTS multi-core platforms. It uses resource reservation approaches in the context of CPUbandwidth and memory-bus bandwidth reservations to bound the interference between the applications running on the same core as well as between the applications running on different cores. In this paper we present a complete composable local and global schedulability analysis for the Multi-Resource Server technique. Based on the proposed analysis,we further provide an experimental study that investigates the behaviour of the MRS and identifies the factors that contribute mostly on the overall system performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luxembourg, Luxemburg: IEEE, 2015
Series
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, ISSN 1946-0740
Keywords
Hierarchical scheduling, compositional analysis, CPU-bandwidth partitioning, memory-bandwidth partitioning.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29242 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2015.7301431 (DOI)000378564800032 ()2-s2.0-84952939182 (Scopus ID)
Conference
20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15, 8-11 Sep 2015, Luxembourg, Luxemburg
Projects
PPMsched - Performance Preserving Multicore Scheduling
Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2016-07-28Bibliographically approved
Inam, R. & Sjödin, M. (2014). Combating unpredictability in multicores through the multi-resource server. In: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014: . Paper presented at 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 16 September 2014 through 19 September 2014 (pp. Article number 7005063).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combating unpredictability in multicores through the multi-resource server
2014 (English)In: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, p. Article number 7005063-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present challenges that hinder the predictable integration and execution of real-time applications on multicore platforms. We investigate how shared resources, like CPU, memory-bus bandwidth, caches, and memory cause unpredictability and interference. We propose to adapt the traditional server-based scheduling approach on the multicore platforms with additional resource-reservations to control the shared access to such resources and present the multi-resource server as a solution such that the execution of real-time applications becomes predictable. 

Keywords
cache coloring, Hierarchical scheduling, memory-bank partitioning, memory-bus bandwidth, Access control, Bandwidth, Factory automation, Scheduling, System buses, Memory banks, Memory bus, Multi-core platforms, Multi-resource, Real-time application, Resource reservations, Shared resources, Cache memory
National Category
Computer Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27939 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2014.7005063 (DOI)000360999100014 ()2-s2.0-84946691860 (Scopus ID)9781479948468 (ISBN)
Conference
19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 16 September 2014 through 19 September 2014
Available from: 2015-04-30 Created: 2015-04-30 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Inam, R., Behnam, M., Nolte, T. & Sjödin, M. (2014). Compositional analysis for the multi-resource server - a technical report.. Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compositional analysis for the multi-resource server - a technical report.
2014 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Multi-Resource Server (MRS) technique has been proposed toenable predictable execution of memory intensive real-time applicationson COTS multi-core platforms. It uses resource reservationapproaches in the context of CPU-bandwidth and memory-busbandwidth reservations to bound the interferences between the applicationsrunning on the same core as well as between the applicationsrunning on different cores. In this paper we present a completecompositional schedulability analysis for the Multi-ResourceServer technique. Based on the proposed analysis, we further providean experimental study that investigates the behaviour of theMRS and identify the factors that contribute mostly on the overallsystem performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2014
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26541 (URN)MDH-MRTC-283/2014-1-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2014-11-12 Created: 2014-11-12 Last updated: 2014-11-26Bibliographically approved
Yin, H., Inam, R., Bril, R. J. & Sjödin, M. (2014). Formalization and verification of mode changes in hierarchical scheduling. In: : . Paper presented at 26th Nordic Workshop on Programming Theory NWPT'14, 29-31 Oct 2014, Halmstad, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formalization and verification of mode changes in hierarchical scheduling
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) are a means for composing complex real-time embedded systems from independently developed and analyzed applications. To support multiple modes in a two-level HSF, the multi-mode adaptive hierarchical scheduling framework MMAHSF has recently been presented supporting different mode-change mechanisms. Currently, we provide a formalization and verification of mode changes in MMAHSF using the UPPAAL model checker for certain mode-change mechanisms. The verification indicates that MMAHSF and the proposed mode-change mechanisms are deadlock-free and guarantee mode changes in bounded time.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26786 (URN)
Conference
26th Nordic Workshop on Programming Theory NWPT'14, 29-31 Oct 2014, Halmstad, Sweden
Projects
ARROWS - Design Techniques for Adaptive Embedded SystemsPPMsched - Performance Preserving Multicore Scheduling
Available from: 2014-12-04 Created: 2014-12-02 Last updated: 2014-12-04Bibliographically approved
Yin, H., Inam, R., Bril, R. J. & Sjödin, M. (2014). Formalization and verification of mode changes in hierarchical scheduling---An extended report. Västerås, Sweden: Mälardalen Real-Time Research Centre, Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formalization and verification of mode changes in hierarchical scheduling---An extended report
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) are a means for composing complex real-time embedded systems from independently developed and analyzed applications. To support multiple modes in a two-level HSF, the multi-mode adaptive hierarchical scheduling framework MMAHSF has recently been presented supporting different mode-change mechanisms. Currently, we provide a formalization and verification of mode changes in MMAHSF using the UPPAAL model checker for certain mode-change mechanisms. The verification indicates that MMAHSF and the proposed mode-change mechanisms are deadlock-free and guarantee correct mode changes in bounded time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås, Sweden: Mälardalen Real-Time Research Centre, Mälardalen University, 2014
Series
MRTC Reports, ISSN 1404-3041
Keywords
real-time systems, hierarchical scheduling framework, mode change, formal verification, UPPAAL
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26784 (URN)MDH-MRTC-289/2014-1-SE (ISRN)
Projects
ARROWS - Design Techniques for Adaptive Embedded Systems
Available from: 2014-12-04 Created: 2014-12-02 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved
Inam, R. (2014). Hierarchical scheduling for predictable execution of real-time software components and legacy systems. (Doctoral dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hierarchical scheduling for predictable execution of real-time software components and legacy systems
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation presents techniques to achieve predictable execution of coarse-grained software components and for preservation of temporal properties of components during their integration and reuse.

The dissertation presents a novel concept runnable virtual node (RVN) which interaction with the environment is bounded both by a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of its internal temporal behaviour is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment. The realization of RVN exploits techniques for hierarchical scheduling to achieve temporal isolation, and the principles from component-based software-engineering to achieve functional isolation. The proof-of-concept case studies executed on a micro-controller demonstrate the preserving of real-time properties within software components for predictable integration and reusability in a new environment, in both hierarchical scheduling and RVN contexts.

Further, a multi-resource server (MRS) is proposed and implemented to enable predictable execution when composing multiple real-time components on a COTS multicore platform. MRS uses resource reservation for both CPU-bandwidth and memory-bus bandwidth to bound the interferences between tasks running on the same core, as well as, between tasks running on different cores. The later could, without MRS, interfere with each other due to contention on a shared memory-bus and memory. The results indicated that MRS can be used to "encapsulate" legacy systems and to give them enough resources to fulfill their purpose. In the dissertation, the compositional schedulability analysis for MRS is also provided and an experimental study is performed to bring insight on the correlation between the server budgets.

We believe that the proposed approaches enable a faster software integration and support legacy reuse and that this work transcend the boundaries of software engineering and real-time systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2014
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 169
Keywords
real-time systems, component integration and reuse, hierarchical scheduling, multicore
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26548 (URN)978-91-7485-179-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-17, R3-151, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
PPMSchedPROGRESS
Available from: 2014-11-13 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2014-12-03Bibliographically approved
Inam, R. (2014). Performance Preservation using Servers for Predictable Execution and Integration. In: The 38th Annual International Computers, Software & Applications Conference COMPSAC 2014: . Paper presented at The 38th Annual International Computers, Software & Applications Conference COMPSAC 2014, 21 Jul 2014, Västerås, Sweden (pp. 614-617).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Preservation using Servers for Predictable Execution and Integration
2014 (English)In: The 38th Annual International Computers, Software & Applications Conference COMPSAC 2014, 2014, p. 614-617Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In real-time embedded systems the components and components integration must satisfy both functional correctness and extra-functional correctness, such as satisfying timing properties. Deploying multiple real-time components on a physical node poses timing problems in components’s integration. These timing problems during integration further effect predictability and reusability of real-time components. We propose a novel concept of runnable virtual node (RVN) whose interaction with the environment is bounded both by a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of its internal temporal behaviour is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment. Our realization of RVN exploits the latest techniques for hierarchical scheduling framework to achieve temporal isolation, and the principles from component-based software-engineering to achieve functional isolation. Proof-of-concept case studies executed on an AVR based 32- bit micro-controller demonstrates the preserving of real-time properties within components for predictable integration and reusability in a new environment without altering its temporal behaviour in both hierarchical scheduling and RVN contexts. We also take a step ahead towards expanding the performance preserving servers’ concept for multicore platform on which the scheduling of real-time tasks is inherently unpredictable due to the contention for shared physical memory and caches. It results in proposing and implementation of a novel type of server, called Multi-Resource Server (MRS) which controls the access to both CPU and memory bandwidth resources such that the execution of real-time tasks become predictable. The MRS provides temporal isolation both between tasks running on the same core, as well as, between tasks running on different cores. Further, we provide the schedulability analysis for MRS to provide predictable performance when composing multiple components on a shared multi-core platform.

Keywords
Component integration, predictable execution, server-based scheduling, memory throttling, CPU resource, memoryresource, memory bandwidth
National Category
Engineering and Technology Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25182 (URN)10.1109/COMPSAC.2014.42 (DOI)000353962400082 ()2-s2.0-84928618435 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-3574-1 (ISBN)
Conference
The 38th Annual International Computers, Software & Applications Conference COMPSAC 2014, 21 Jul 2014, Västerås, Sweden
Projects
PPMsched - Performance Preserving Multicore Scheduling
Available from: 2014-06-05 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
Inam, R., Carlson, J., Sjödin, M. & Kuncar, J. (2014). Predictable integration and reuse of executable real-time components. Journal of Systems and Software, 91, 147-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictable integration and reuse of executable real-time components
2014 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 91, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the concept of runnable virtual node (RVN) as a means to achieve predictable integration and reuse of executable real-time components in embedded systems. A runnable virtual node is a coarse-grained software component that provides functional and temporal isolation with respect to its environment. Its interaction with the environment is bounded both by a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of its internal temporal behaviour is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment. Our realization of RVN exploits the latest techniques for hierarchical scheduling to achieve temporal isolation, and the principles from component-based software-engineering to achieve functional isolation. It uses a two-level deployment process, i.e. deploying functional entities to RVNs and then deploying RVNs to physical nodes, and thus also gives development benefits with respect to composability, system integration, testing, and validation. In addition, we have implemented a server-based inter-RVN communication strategy to not only support the predictable integration and reuse properties of RVNs by keeping the communication code in a separate server, but also increasing the maintainability and flexibility to change the communication code without affecting the timing properties of RVNs. We have applied our approach to a case study, implemented in the ProCom component technology executing on top of a FreeRTOS-based hierarchical scheduling framework and present the results as a proof-of-concept.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24980 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2013.12.040 (DOI)000334001600011 ()2-s2.0-84900676128 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Inam, R., Behnam, M. & Sjödin, M. (2014). Support for Legacy Real-Time Applications in an HSF-Enabled FreeRTOS - a technical report. Sweden: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Support for Legacy Real-Time Applications in an HSF-Enabled FreeRTOS - a technical report
2014 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a runtime support to consolidate legacy together with other real-time applications, running a single instance of a real-time operating system (RTOS), and sharing system resources. In this context, we resort to the hierarchical scheduling framework (HSF) to provide tem- poral partitions for dierent applications, supporting their independent development and real-time analysis, thus resulting on a predictable inte- gration. In particular, the paper focuses on a constructive element, the legacy server that allows executing code that is unaware of the temporal partition within which it is deployed. Furthermore, we discuss the chal- lenges that need to be addressed to execute a legacy application in an HSF without modications to the original code. We focus on the chal- lenge of enabling sharing system resources, both hardware and software, as typically found in most industrial software systems. We propose a novel solution based on wrappers for the required RTOS system calls. We implement our ideas in a concrete implementation on FreeRTOS OS, taking advantage of a prior HSF implementation. The validation is performed by a proof-of-concept case study that shows a successful integration of a legacy application that uses shared resources in a system that executes other applications. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden: Mälardalen University, 2014
Keywords
real-time systems, hierarchical scheduling, legacy application reuse, applications integration
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26547 (URN)MDH-MRTC-295/2014-1-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2014-11-13 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2015-02-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7448-3381

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