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Dao, V.-L., Girs, S. & Uhlemann, E. (2024). Dealing with Jamming Attacks in Uplink Pairwise NOMA Using Outage Analysis, Smart Relaying and Redundant Transmissions. Open Journal of the Communications Society, 5, 112-126
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dealing with Jamming Attacks in Uplink Pairwise NOMA Using Outage Analysis, Smart Relaying and Redundant Transmissions
2024 (English)In: Open Journal of the Communications Society, Vol. 5, p. 112-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on optimizing the performance of an uplink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) scenario with and without the support of a relayer, while subject to jamming attacks. We consider two different relaying protocols, one where the sources and the destination are within range of each other and one where they are not. The relay node can be mobile, e.g., a mobile base station, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a stationary node that is chosen as a result of a relay selection procedure. We also benchmark with a NOMA retransmission protocol and an Orthogonal Multiple Access (OMA) scheme without a relayer. We analyze, adjust and compare the four protocols for different settings using outage analysis, which is an efficient tool for establishing communication reliability for both individual nodes and the overall wireless network. Closed-form expressions of outage probabilities can be adopted by deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms to optimize wireless networks online. Accordingly, we first derive closed-form expressions for the individual outage probability (IOP) of each source node link and the relayer link using both pairwise NOMA and OMA. Next, we analyze the IOP for one packet (IOPP) for each source node considering all possible links between the source node to the destination, taking both phases into account for the considered protocols when operating in Nakagami-m fading channels. The overall outage probability for all packets (OOPP) is defined as the maximum IOPP obtained among the source nodes. This metric is useful to optimize the whole wireless network, e.g., to ensure fairness among the source nodes. Then, we propose a method using deep RL where the OOPP is used as a reward function in order to adapt to the dynamic environment associated with jamming attacks. Finally, we discuss valuable guidelines for enhancing the communication reliability of the legitimate system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2024
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64352 (URN)10.1109/OJCOMS.2023.3339175 (DOI)001133503200001 ()2-s2.0-85179799440 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-22 Created: 2023-09-22 Last updated: 2024-01-23Bibliographically approved
Gorospe, J., Hasan, S., Islam, M. R., Gomez, A. A., Girs, S. & Uhlemann, E. (2023). Analyzing Inter-Vehicle Collision Predictions during Emergency Braking with Automated Vehicles. In: International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications: . Paper presented at International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Montreal, Canada, 21-23/6, 2023 (pp. 411-418). IEEE Computer Society, 2023-June
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing Inter-Vehicle Collision Predictions during Emergency Braking with Automated Vehicles
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2023 (English)In: International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, IEEE Computer Society , 2023, Vol. 2023-June, p. 411-418Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automated Vehicles (AVs) require sensing and perception to integrate data from multiple sources, such as cameras, lidars, and radars, to operate safely and efficiently. Collaborative sensing through wireless vehicular communications can enhance this process. However, failures in sensors and communication systems may require the vehicle to perform a safe stop or emergency braking when encountering hazards. By identifying the conditions for being able to perform emergency braking without collisions, better automation models that also consider communications need to be developed. Hence, we propose to employ Machine Learning (ML) to predict inter-vehicle collisions during emergency braking by utilizing a comprehensive dataset that has been prepared through rigorous simulations. Using simulations and data-driven modeling has several advantages over physics-based models in this case, as it, e.g., enables us to provide a dataset with varying vehicle kinematic parameters, traffic density, network load, vehicle automation controller parameters, and more. To further establish the conditions for inter-vehicle collisions, we analyze the predictions made through interpretable ML models and rank the features that contribute to collisions. We also extract human-interpretable rules that can establish the conditions leading to collisions between AVs during emergency braking. Finally, we plot the decision boundaries between different input features to separate the collision and non-collision classes and demonstrate the safe region of emergency braking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2023
Keywords
Automation, Forecasting, Intelligent vehicle highway systems, Vehicle to vehicle communications, Vehicles, Automated vehicles, Collaborative sensing, Collision prediction, Communications systems, Condition, Inter-vehicle collision, Multiple source, Sensing and perception, Sensor systems, Vehicular communications, Braking
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64088 (URN)10.1109/WiMob58348.2023.10187826 (DOI)001042200300067 ()2-s2.0-85167566242 (Scopus ID)9798350336672 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Montreal, Canada, 21-23/6, 2023
Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2024-02-28
Midemalm, J., Vadiee, A., Uhlemann, E., Georgsson, F., Carlsson-Kvarnlöf,, G., Månsson, J., . . . Johansson, P. (Eds.). (2023). Bidrag från den 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar. Paper presented at 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, 22-23 november 2023, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås. Västerås: Mälardalens universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bidrag från den 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar
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2023 (Swedish)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens universitet, 2023. p. 437
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64761 (URN)978-91-7485-620-0 (ISBN)
Conference
9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, 22-23 november 2023, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås
Available from: 2023-11-16 Created: 2023-11-16 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Hasan, S., Girs, S. & Uhlemann, E. (2023). Characterization of Transient Communication Outages Into States to Enable Autonomous Fault Tolerance in Vehicle Platooning. IEEE OPEN JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 4, 101-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Transient Communication Outages Into States to Enable Autonomous Fault Tolerance in Vehicle Platooning
2023 (English)In: IEEE OPEN JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, ISSN 2687-7813, Vol. 4, p. 101-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The benefits of platooning, e.g., fuel efficiency, road throughput enhancement, driver offload, etc., have sparked an interest in a more connected, intelligent, and sustainable transportation ecosystem. However, efficient platooning is realized through wireless communications, characterized by transient connectivity, which is caused by occasional packet losses. Being a safety-critical system of systems, a platoon must be fail-operational even during transient connectivity. Moreover, a platoon should be capable of transitioning into a fail-safe state upon encountering a hazard. To this end, we propose a strategy for classifying the transient communication outages incurred by platooning vehicles into states. Furthermore, a state machine using these states to enable safe automated platooning is proposed that also defines the transitions between the states based on the nature and levels of transient connectivity and hazards. To achieve this, a graceful degradation and upgradation method is proposed, such that the platoon can remain fail-operational by adjusting, e.g., the automated controller and/or the inter-vehicle gaps based on the current communication quality. An emergency braking strategy is also proposed to enable a fast transition into a fail-safe state, should the platoon encounter a hazard. Rigorous simulation studies show that the proposed strategies enable fault-tolerant automated platooning also during transient connectivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2023
Keywords
ACC, CACC, cooperative driving, connected vehicles, collision avoidance, emergency braking, fail-operational, fail-safe, fault tolerance, platoon, Plexe, SUMO, veins, V2V
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62113 (URN)10.1109/OJITS.2023.3237958 (DOI)000932437200005 ()2-s2.0-85147289919 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-22 Created: 2023-03-22 Last updated: 2023-03-22Bibliographically approved
Hasan, S., Girs, S. & Uhlemann, E. (2023). Cooperative Automated Emergency Braking for CAVs under Time-Varying Communication Delays. In: IAVVC 2023 - IEEE International Automated Vehicle Validation Conference, Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2023 IEEE International Automated Vehicle Validation Conference, IAVVC 2023, Austin 16 October 2023 through 18 October 2023. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Automated Emergency Braking for CAVs under Time-Varying Communication Delays
2023 (English)In: IAVVC 2023 - IEEE International Automated Vehicle Validation Conference, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) have the potential to significantly improve road safety, fuel efficiency, and traffic flow by forming platoons with short inter-vehicle gaps, enabled by vehicle-to-vehicle communications and onboard sensors. However, wireless connectivity for CAVs is subject to time-varying delays, which can significantly impact platoon safety during emergency braking. To this end, this paper evaluates the communication delays incurred by platoon vehicles during emergency braking under various data and traffic densities. Additionally, an emergency braking strategy named adaptive emergency braking is proposed and compared with five other strategies based on their ability to meet the functional requirements of collision avoidance and minimizing the stopping distance of the platoon lead vehicle, which are crucial for transitioning a platoon to a fail-safe state. Moreover, the emergency braking strategies are evaluated through rigorous simulations, considering non-functional criteria such as required inter-vehicle gaps, maximum allowable deceleration rates, and their robustness under time-varying communication delays. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Cooperative communication, Intelligent vehicle highway systems, Motor transportation, Traffic congestion, Vehicle to vehicle communications, Automated vehicles, Braking strategies, Communication delays, Flow byes, Fuel efficiency, On-board sensors, Road safety, Time varying, Traffic flow, Vehicle-to-vehicle communication, Vehicles
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65236 (URN)10.1109/IAVVC57316.2023.10328108 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180127136 (Scopus ID)9798350322538 (ISBN)
Conference
2023 IEEE International Automated Vehicle Validation Conference, IAVVC 2023, Austin 16 October 2023 through 18 October 2023
Available from: 2024-01-03 Created: 2024-01-03 Last updated: 2024-01-03Bibliographically approved
Dao, V.-L., Girs, S. & Uhlemann, E. (2023). Defeating Jamming Attacks in Downlink Pairwise NOMA Using Relaying. In: : . Paper presented at 34th IEEE Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2023, Toronto, 5 September 2023 through 8 September 2023. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defeating Jamming Attacks in Downlink Pairwise NOMA Using Relaying
2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study explores an incremental relaying strategy in downlink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA), which involves multiple pairs of nodes near and far from the downlink destinations. The strategy aims to select a near destination node to relay the packet of a far destination node, considering the presence of jamming attacks. To this end, we first derive closed-form expressions for the individual outage probability (IOP) for both near and far destinations in Nakagami-m fading channels. Next, the overall IOP (OIOP) performance is defined as the maximum value among the obtained IOPs, ensuring fairness among the nodes. To optimize the system, simulated annealing algorithms are proposed to determine the best power allocation and the best relay-destination pairing. We can conclude that both the power allocation and the position/selection of the near destination node significantly impact the OIOP for a specific pair. However, in the case of multiple pairs of destinations, a good power allocation alone suffices for each pair, and fixed or even random destination pairing is satisfactory in the considered context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64353 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC56721.2023.10293783 (DOI)001103214700037 ()2-s2.0-85178306945 (Scopus ID)9781665464833 (ISBN)
Conference
34th IEEE Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2023, Toronto, 5 September 2023 through 8 September 2023
Available from: 2023-09-22 Created: 2023-09-22 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Dao, V.-L., Girs, S. & Uhlemann, E. (2023). Outage Performance Comparison of Adaptive Relaying Schemes Subject to Jamming. In: : . Paper presented at 28th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (IEEE ETFA), September 12 - 15 2023, Sinaia, Romania.. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outage Performance Comparison of Adaptive Relaying Schemes Subject to Jamming
2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Proper relay selection (RS) plays a key role for improving the reliability of wireless networks, especially in the presence of jamming attacks and/or interferers. In this work, we consider several RS schemes from the literature, using e.g. channel gains and signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) to select a relayer and evaluate them using outage probability (OP). We also propose an RS scheme which is selecting relayers to maximize the communication reliability in terms of minimizing the OP. The suggested RS strategy also takes the effect of jamming attacks and/or interferers into account. Accordingly, an intensive investigation of the OP of all RS schemes considering also jammers' positions in various scenarios is conducted. The results suggest that a combination of RS schemes using channel gains and SINRs of all hops achieves the best communication reliability in scenarios with intensive interference. The sensitivity for channel estimation errors of the relaying schemes is also investigated. Finally, discussions about the obtained results together with the complexity of all RS schemes are presented before providing guidelines on which schemes should be used in which scenarios to improve the communication reliability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64354 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275372 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175472509 (Scopus ID)
Conference
28th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (IEEE ETFA), September 12 - 15 2023, Sinaia, Romania.
Available from: 2023-09-22 Created: 2023-09-22 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
Hasan, S., Gorospe, J., Girs, S., Gomez, A. A. & Uhlemann, E. (2023). PlatoonSAFE: An Integrated Simulation Tool for Evaluating Platoon Safety. IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 4, 325-347
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PlatoonSAFE: An Integrated Simulation Tool for Evaluating Platoon Safety
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2023 (English)In: IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, ISSN 2687-7813, Vol. 4, p. 325-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Platooning is highly tractable for enabling fuel savings for autonomous and semi-autonomous cars and trucks. Safety concerns are one of the main impediments that need to be overcome before vehicle platoons can be deployed on ordinary roads despite their readily available technical feasibility. Simulation studies remain vital for evaluating platoon safety applications primarily due to the high cost of field tests. To this end, we present PlatoonSAFE, an open-source simulation tool that promotes the simulation studies of fault tolerance in platooning by enabling the monitoring of transient communication outages during runtime and assigning an appropriate performance level as a function of the instantaneous communication quality. In addition, PlatoonSAFE facilitates the simulation of several emergency braking strategies to evaluate their efficacy in transitioning a platoon to a fail-safe state. Furthermore, two Machine Learning (ML) models are integrated into PlatoonSAFE that can be employed as an onboard prediction tool in the platooning vehicles to facilitate online training of ML models and real-time prediction of communication, network, and traffic parameters. In this paper, we present the PlatoonSAFE structure, its features and implementation details, configuration parameters, and evaluation metrics required to evaluate the fault tolerance of platoon safety applications. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
CACC, connected vehicles, cooperative driving, discrete event simulations, fail-safe, failoperational, fault tolerance, machine learning, platoon, PLEXE, SUMO, V2V, Veins
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62702 (URN)10.1109/OJITS.2023.3271608 (DOI)000986540100001 ()2-s2.0-85159678158 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-31 Created: 2023-05-31 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Hasan, S., Gorospe, J., Gomez, A. A., Girs, S. & Uhlemann, E. (2023). Prediction of Communication Delays in Connected Vehicles and Platoons. In: 2023 IEEE 97TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VTC2023-SPRING: . Paper presented at 97th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Spring), JUN 20-23, 2023, Florence, ITALY. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of Communication Delays in Connected Vehicles and Platoons
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2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE 97TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VTC2023-SPRING, IEEE , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automated vehicles connected through vehicle-tovehicle communications can use onboard sensor information from adjacent vehicles to provide higher traffic safety or passenger comfort. In particular, automated vehicles forming a platoon can enhance traffic safety by communicating before braking hard. It can also improve fuel efficiency by enabling reduced aerodynamic drag through short gaps. However, packet losses may increase the delay between periodic beacons, especially for the rear vehicles in a platoon. If the connected vehicles can forecast link quality, they can assign different performance levels in terms of intervehicle distances and also facilitate the designing of safer braking strategies. This paper proposes a strategy for incorporating machine learning algorithms into, e.g., the lead vehicle of a platoon to enable online training and real-time prediction of communication delays incurred by connected vehicles during runtime. The prediction accuracy and its suitability for making safety-critical decisions during, e.g., emergency braking have been evaluated through rigorous simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 2577-2465
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64788 (URN)10.1109/VTC2023-Spring57618.2023.10200902 (DOI)001054797202104 ()2-s2.0-85169839109 (Scopus ID)979-8-3503-1114-3 (ISBN)
Conference
97th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Spring), JUN 20-23, 2023, Florence, ITALY
Available from: 2023-11-22 Created: 2023-11-22 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Peón, P. G., Karachatzis, P., Steiner, W. & Uhlemann, E. (2023). Time-Sensitive Networking's Scheduled Traffic Implementation on IEEE 802.11 COTS Devices. In: Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 29th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2023: . Paper presented at 9th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2023, Niigata, 30 August 2023 through 1 September 2023 (pp. 167-175). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-Sensitive Networking's Scheduled Traffic Implementation on IEEE 802.11 COTS Devices
2023 (English)In: Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 29th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 167-175Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wired real-time network deployments based on time-sensitive networking (TSN) are becoming increasingly popular in several application fields including industrial automation and the automotive area. This is to a great extent due to the scheduled traffic (ST; IEEE 802.1Qbv), a TSN mechanism that precisely triggers transmissions at pre-defined instants from a set of independent hardware queues. Unfortunately, the wireless counterparts based on IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) currently lack standardized or functional solutions that would be able to fulfill strict real-time requirements. This work proposes the use of ST over IEEE 802.11, taking advantage of an existing but overlooked mechanism from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. An extensive set of tests, spanning different implementation configurations, traffic patterns, and levels of interference evaluates the proposal in terms of reliability and delivery delays and serves as a proof of concept. The tests also evaluate the much-needed clock synchronization quality of an out-of-the-box software-only implementation of the precision time protocol (PTP) due to its relevance in enabling ST. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
cots, dependability, ieee 802.11, ieee 802.1Qbv, implementation, ptp, real time, reliability, scheduled traffic, time sensitive networking, tsn, wi fi, IEEE Standards, Quality control, Software testing, Wireless local area networks (WLAN), Cot, IEEE 802.11s, Real- time, Scheduled traffics, WI - FI, Wi-Fi
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65017 (URN)10.1109/RTCSA58653.2023.00028 (DOI)2-s2.0-85178028072 (Scopus ID)9798350337860 (ISBN)
Conference
9th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2023, Niigata, 30 August 2023 through 1 September 2023
Available from: 2023-12-13 Created: 2023-12-13 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
Projects
Reliable Real-Time Communications [2008-03431_Vinnova]; Halmstad University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6497-4099

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